My dissertation, not good academically, but gathered the information around what i knew on this subject which i tried to research within modules done at universities several times.




An assessment of the failures at fighting

sexual abuses against children at the

local, national and international levels.


  1. 1………. CONTENT
  2. 2……….ABSTRACT
  5. 8……….a) Definition
  6. 9……….b) how many victims? – and the statistics deficiency
  7. 11…… c) Growing numbers
  8. 12…… d) Victims’ profiles: Aggravating factors
  9. 13…… e) Consequences of abuses: traumas and symptoms


  1. 17…… a) ‘Commercialisation’
  2. 18…… b) Monetarisation.
  3. 19 … d) The problem could be the law

1) Leniency

2) Legality, illegality

  1. 19…… e) Testimonies, disclosure and judicial failures


  1. 23…… a) Where
  2. 23…… b) Migrations
  3. 25…… c) Employability
  4. 26…… d) By who
  5. 26…… e) surroundings
  6. 27…… f) Family
  7. 27…… g) social services/care
  8. 28…… h) Schools
  9. 29…… i) Gender


  1. 30…… j) Mediatisation
  2. 33…… k) Socio-economic and socio-cultural changes
  3. 34…… l) Modernisation and the internet
  5. 33…… a) Convention
  6. 34…… b) Dysfunctional: a system of impediments
  7. 36…… c) Human right, duty or responsibility
  8. 37…… d) Aid and Program’s solutions- holistic or specific
  9. 38…… e) Raising awareness
  10. 39…… f) Schools
  11. 40…… g) Health reasons given as the redundant reasons for countering paedophilia, not

the necessary attacks on predators

  1. 42…… e) With what to help?
  2. 43…… h) The danger of a so powerful tool
  4. 45…… a) Are collections of data working at all?
  5. 46…… b) Data collection
  6. 48…… c) Aggregation of data
  7. 49…… d) Misappropriation of the language by professionals
  8. 50…… e) Rehabilitation, resocialization?
  9. 52…… f) Too little is conscientiously done
  10. 51…… CONCLUSION
  12. 61…… APPENDIX


The first section of this paper is about the victims. Victims should be at the centre of the

greatest attention and emergency actions as sexual crimes against children leave the most


profound social, mental, psychological, and physical scars and symptoms. Increasing

concerns and data available are still standing low compared to the scale of the abuses, and

even more when compared to ‘well-funded’ criminal networks and means of distribution

becoming more and more efficient and recognised to be facing patently insufficient law


Trafficking involves ‘trading exchanges’, so the financial dimension to it, the

‘commercialisation’ via ‘pornography’ and the notoriously gigantesque money-making

industry that ‘so-called prostitutions’ represents will be discussed. Moreover, within an

exploitative context reinforced by gender, social and work relations, one can also figure out

how atrocities might be linked with dire exploitative methods- just because of the fear or of

the mimicking or the replication of systems letting SAAC unaddressed. At the origin of this

fear or social reproduction; the whole societal systemi may have been found in many cases to

be complacent or to have let down victims and to have even led to their criminalisation,

impeaching in most cases disclosure and prosecution.

After having analysed (or through) who and what, the question of where will be under


Places where sexual abuses against children (SAAC) happen or start interpellate on the

access of the abusers to the abused while SAAC are often perpetrated within the family, or

within the very surrounding of the child, in places and discourses where children are and are

therefore threatened with the abusers’ attempts to be at proximity. The final point will be on

how the work put in place are in turn helping curbing the progression of this scourge or how

they result in defeat.



This paper will be looking at reasons for the failures to protect children from sexual crimes

against children (SAAC) in a comprehensive and successful manner. It will investigate the

detrimental roles of states’ institutions, businesses, and private individuals allowing SAAC to

perdure. The dramatic amount and pervasiveness of SAAC in society become even more hard

to believe when compared with the quasi total secrecy around it, they are left unreported and

unprosecuted. The very few scandals of SAAC mediatised represent only a little proportion

of the extent of those crimes, while no comprehensive measures seem to be taken to fight

actively against them. That taboo infiltrates all institutions, and the same applies to the way

politicians and policy makers react to them:, in letting them unaddressed, in silencing them


‘Growing number of victims’. This phrase is certainly the most shocking and widespread in

the literature on present sexual abuses on children (Fong and Berger, 2010) (UNICEF Pacific,

2006) (Broughton, 2009) (Lalor, 2004). In this dissertation the literature review has been

placed at the end in the attempt to prioritize information and start with the first chapter that

provide information about the victims. Pedophilia, through incest, is known as being present

and ‘evenly distributed’ regardless of the class, wealth, origins, social milieu or status

(Galiana, 2012). However, traffickers and other abusers will predominantly target children of

very marginalised communities (Dottridge, 2008) (O Briain, 2006). The chapter thus goes on

to enumerate what might count as aggravating factors other than poverty and the gender

factor both explored in chapter III within their social or cultural contexts. Being without

one’s parents or experiencing parental neglect or abuse, lack of financial means and lack of

education, all highly contribute to augmenting the risks for children to be sexually abused


(Fong and Berger, 2010) (O Briain, 2006) (Dottridge, 2008) (Lalor, 2004). It is to be noted

that the focus is made on the legal, political, societal and pragmatic (preventive, retributive,

or reparative) measures- rather than psychological or medical perspectives. However, a

summary of the traumas and tortures sustained by the victims is necessary to understand

better the quasi inevitability of lasting exploitation without outside real help. This rather

descriptive part is fundamental to the understanding on how perpetrators use their ‘power’ to

further harm (Fong and Berger, 2010) and occasion dependency or helplessness, and

sometimes with the support, knowing, willing, condoning, tolerating, unaware, ineffectively

defendant or passive attitude of the system.

The second part connects sexual abuses to money, the law and the power relations that results

from it. The heavily economic vocabulary used, and debates around that highly profitable

trade (O Briain, 2006) (Schell et al., 2006) (Esposito, 1998) (Lalor, 2004) exposes clearly the

many pressures and obstacles at all levels encountered even when it comes to paedophiliac

abuses. Of course this monetarisation, commoditisation pervasively present are reminiscent

of how prostitution backed by many as work could lead to more and more sexual crimes

against children (SAAC) and fewer actions and fewer possibilities for valid, substantial

oppositions. Legislatively, the lack of appropriate punishment (UNICEF Pacific, 2006)

(Dottridge, 2008) (Galiana, 2012) gives an additional view on how prostitution and

pornography are treated as a billion-dollar industry, i.e. as an industry first and foremost,

supported by rulings agreeing with paedophiliac representations, and paedophile activism

(Schlebaum, 1992) (Mirkin, 2009) (Taylor, 2013). The plights of the victims will be back at

the centre of the discussion. It is there explained how children are the victims of their direct

abusers and, of the whole society irresponsive to the horrors children are let in, of

stigmatisation and denial translated into more than judicial defeat but judicial torments in this

case leading to lasting torture. Examples will be exposed, such as the routinized doubts on the


credibility granted to children testimonies undermining prevention and police protection

(Fong and Berger, 2010) (O Briain, 2006) (Jensen et al., 2005) (Orchard, 2007) (Schlebaum,

1992) (UNICEF Pacific, 2006), like the UK have been reminded with the 2013 and 2015

grooming scandals of more than 400 girls (The guardian, 2013) (The guardian, 2015) (BBC,

2015). Details on children remaining unaccounted for, ignored, or not believed, and put

further into danger of reprisals by the same agencies supposed to be the rescuers and carers of

children and of people attest of the great impediments contravening disclosure and testimony

within official organisations themselves.

Thirdly, the questions of where and who come into play. This will not be about traffickers

themselves, as they should be the objects of a specific piece and are the objects of quite

abundant interests, but about the processes of such commercial or non-commercial traffics or

isolate abuses. The paragraphs are divided into places and locations, geographical but also in

places of decision-making such as social services, schools, and families. It also hints at the

need to debunk people linking it conceptually or ideologically to a specific time in history, as

it supposed absence in general comes with worse and ‘legitimised’ ways of sexually abusing

children, unchallenged child marriage (Lalor, 2003) being only one example. Along these

themes, recurring patterns of abuses are found whenever perpetrators can profit from the

defect of societies (Lalor, 2003) (Whitaker et al., 2008) (UNICEF Pacific, 2006) (Dottridge,

2008) (O Briain, 2006). Changes in cultures (Lalor, 2003) have been used as a cover and

inculpated for the occurrences of paedophilia. Are changes truly guilty of regression? – or

protecting undefined cultures located in the past instead of tackling the present forms of

society’s biggest failures, if not only retrograde, could sometimes unsurprisingly be a further

note to a sterile stance. Nostalgia tones will be romanticising families, or deprive individuals

of their personal choices and autonomies, and disavow the presence of egregious crimes

hidden or justified by ‘stabilised’ or rigid, arbitrary society where seclusion and secrecy are


part of an active societal construction or destruction. In response to this, we will see how

sexual crimes against children (SAAC) supporting stances has been confined and by the

larger notions of ‘religion’, traditions, gender relations, and poverty (Orchard, 2007) (Hornby,

2012). (Lalor, 2003). The reality of performant technologies multiplying opportunities and

information facilitating offenses through the internet will be presented (Schell et al., 2006)

(Esposito, 1998) (Beech, et al., 2008) (Schlebaum, 1992).

Chapter four will give examples of the conventions pertaining to SAAC. It will hint at the

premises, perspectives, solutions and alternatives commonly found in governmental and

NGO’s programs (Saxby, 2008) (Fong and Berger, 2010) (Dottridge, 2008) and suggest some

of the common features that have done so much to curb SAAC but that could bear limitations

in their redundancy or because they become the only and reduced way to proceed (Willis,

2002) (Kelly et al, 1995) (Jensen et al., 2005) (Siverts, 2003) (Brabant, 2011) (Whitaker et

al., 2008). We will act as a reminder on how SAAC are of an extremely grave nature, and

could participate in causing irreparable injustice through false accusations (Astapenia, 2013)

(Daily Caller, 2014) (Huffington Post, 2016) (Daily Dot, 2015).

Hindrances to data collection and the quality of data, as well as data aggregation (Lalor,

2003) (Whitaker et al., 2008) (Willis, 2002) (Fong and Berger, 2010) (Broughton, 2009)

constitute the first part of the literature review. Then questioning arises on the way

professionals themselves use terms chronically misused, fuelling misunderstanding and

amalgams or helping the hiding of crimes by defining them via wordings such as ‘sex

industry’, ‘prostitution’ or the ‘commercialisation’ of sexual abuses on children.

The dissertation puts forward the way paedophilia, one cannot do more taboos and ‘naturally’

‘at home matters’, are maintained in the realm of the untold, of the unnoticed, of the

unreported, or un-investigated even though when known of everyone. Could statistic results

be part of the explanations for such unwilling or absence altogether of serious steps against


it? Would it be because of its pervasiveness (UNICEF Pacific, 2006) (Lalor, 2003) that

paedophilia is in fact ‘under protection’ or at least protected by people’ passiveness not

daring even for it to be addressed? One cannot say ‘unseen’, as in broad daylight, child

marriage included in the US, sex tourism regions on every continent or whole quarters in

India (Whitaker et al., 2008), of children and under-age individuals exploited in such

atrocious ways, remains juridically untouched, standing as the epitomes of sexual abuses on

children international realm. Even though muffled, reporting appear on popular, highcirculated

papers, without anyone managing to take serious actions against it. If the spotlight

stays discreet, legal decisions result in letting paedophiles predators advocating, pressurizing

for paedophilic crimes as activists and directors of organisations in the Netherlands.


  1. a) Definition.

A ‘child’ is defined in international law as any person under the age of 18 years. (O Briain,

2006, p.5).

‘The United States in 2000 passed The Trafficking Victims

Protection Act (TVPA), a national policy addressing human

trafficking which defines ‘‘severe forms’’ of human trafficking ii as

sex trafficking in which commercial sex is induced by force,

fraud, or coercion, or in which a person induced to perform such


an act has not attained 18 years of age; or the recruitment ,

harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for

labor services, through use of coercion, for the purpose of

subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage and

slavery (U.S. Department of State in Broughton, 2009, p 6)’

Although, the abuses that are the objects of a trade and the abuses that do not consist in

trading or ‘abused by single perpetrators’ (Broughton, 2009, p.19) are two different types of

abuses that require different types of interventions (Fong and Berger, 2010)iii they will rarely

be the object of a strict differentiation here.

  1. b) how many victims? – and the statistics deficiencyiv.

“Underground” industry’s estimates about the number of the victims are very hard to

establish (Esposito, 1998). Due to paedophilia being legally punished and the consequent seal

of secrecy placed around it, statistics or serious representative studies are hard to found or to

assess (Broughton, 2009). The lack of certainty or even relevance might be caused by

paedophilia being a taboo, and of the low rates of it being reported- be it because the

perpetrators are family, or cannot be prosecuted nor found, or because they manage to have

total control over the lives of their victims (Kelly et al, 1995).

Besides, others deplore research paucity, or ‘data vacuum’ (Lalor, 2003)v (Schlebaum, 1992).

The data inexactness or absence is also due to a lack of data at the national level (UNICEF

Pacific, 2006) that will logically impair or render impossible worldwide data to be assembled

(UNICEF Pacific, 2006). By extension the absence of study, survey or data collection

indicates the most disturbing lack of will or interest, or absence of reaction from the


authorities. On those lines, many draw attentionvi to the ineffectiveness of Interpol (Galiana,

2012), and the lack of cooperation between most governments (Schlebaum, 1992).

Limoncelli portraits the nationalistic approaches of trafficking, not protecting victims as a

whole but only nationals versus foreigners (Limoncelli, 2010). Many instances proved that

historically countries, governments, armies and NGOs run programs intended not to supress

trafficking but to regulate it or profit from it (Limoncelli, 2010). More recently rich states

have been found to condole out-of-the-country abuses, until very recently for the UK, when

they used to allow ‘double criminality’, a system that prevented extradition when their

nationals had been found guilty of sex tourism (Saxby, 2008). Nevertheless, these

discordances also echo the reality of the international shortage of funds phenomena whose

paradigm is the UN famous lack of substantial resources. However, troubles to obtain funds

and many other unresolved matters might be put better in evidence at the supranational level

than national organs are prepared to admit of their own. If we take a country like the United

States, reporting inconsistencies have been pointed out as being a factor preventing accurate

data (Broughton, 2009). Of course if data are corrupted then whole policies and perspectives

of actions will lose in quality. Still some figures emerge, and when one victim or the threat on

one victim would incontestably impair the system as a whole, millions are left at the hands of

the perpetrators.

Estimates from the year 2000 suggest that, worldwide, 1.8 million children were

involved in prostitution and pornography, and 1.2 million were victims of trafficking

(UNICEF Pacific, 2006) Furthermore, the World Health Organization (WHO)

estimates that in 2002, “150 million girls and 73 million boys under 18 experienced

forced sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual violence” (UNICEF Pacific, 2006,



In fact, these United Nations Children’s Fund’s (UNICEF) estimates may be regarded as

rather conservative like Daniel Broughton observes in his report. The US Department of State

in its ‘Trafficking in Persons Report-June 2008’ stated that at least two million children are

exploited in the international commercial sex trade (Broughton, 2009)vii.

  1. c) Growing numbers

One of the most publicised information is that the number of children victims of sexual

abuses and networked sexual abuses attest of its globalisation and growth (Broughton, 2009)

(Fong and Berger, 2010) (UNICEF Pacific, 2006). This figure in augmentation in developing

country (Lalor, 2004) (UNICEF Pacific, 2006), is also rising in rich countries such as the

United States (Boxill & Richardson, Estes & Weiner, Spangenberg, in Broughton, 2009)

(Fong and Berger, 2010)viii ix. In some countries of the Pacific or in Africa, results have been

equated with being an ‘epidemiology of child sexual abuses’ (Finkelhor in Lalor, 2003,

p.454) or as ‘rampant’ (UNICEF Pacific, 2006, p.49). Also ‘studies in 19 countries produced

findings similar to North American research’ thus ‘undermining the assumption of North

American exceptionalism’ with ‘prevalence ranging from 7 to 36% for women and 3 to 29%

for men’ sexually abused when they were children (Lalor, 2003, p.454). Another estimate

from ‘international studies estimate that 25% of children around the world experience sexual

abuse, physical abuse or domestic violence’ (Cohen & Mannarino in Fong and Berger, 2010,

p 313).

Light canning in schools and incest are sometimes standing in the same figure (Fong and

Berger, 2010). Of course, if these statistics cannot help anyone on the subject of pedophilia,

they should call on the emergency of abuses to be talked about in order to be tackled, but they

also reveal political insisting unwillingness to deal with it as the necessity to stop SAAC is in


fact quasi nowhere to be found in political discourses and are merely left to the NGOs to

campaign for.

  1. d) Victims’ profiles: Aggravating factors

To sum it up,

‘Trafficking children for sexual abuses and slavery will predominantly

target children of very defavorised communities ’ (O Briain, 2006, p.17).

or of deprived children within their own communities.

Below are some of the factors that make children especially vulnerable to being trafficked.

Information on overall trafficking have to be analysed since they are the subject of many

more investigations and reflexions than sexual exploitation is. Also exploitation ‘may start

out as exploitation of a person’s labour, and end in their sexual exploitation’ (O Briain,

2006, p.3). Children victims of sexual abuses are often victims of so many other abuses that

the extent of their traumas will ‘facilitate’ their being held by the perpetrators (Dottridge,

2008). Inversely, it is because trafficking might eventually lead to its worst possible forms

that people urge more and more the resolution of trafficking in children as it also implies

sexual exploitation (Dottridge, 2008).

Within the lists of aggravating factors and causing research to become rarer are the other

dangers they will face alone or within their communities, such as war, disease, poverty,

hunger (Lalor, 2003). Targets s are more likely to be children who experience parental

neglect and abuse, children living without their natural parents (including those who are

informally adopted) and children suffering economic hardship, poverty of opportunity


(UNICEF Pacific, 2006) (Whitaker et al., 2008), discrimination, or particularly youth from

minorities (O Briain, 2006, p.16)x. The worst perspectives socially on these fragilities is when

a family is made vulnerable in order to be more and more defenceless against abuses, and

ultimately sexual trafficking.

  1. e) Consequences of abuses: traumas and symptoms

Traumas, more than consequences, are also utilised as ‘tools’, as means for perpetrators to

operate ‘disablement’ on individuals with what will be regarded as abnormal and stigmatised

by the very same society that even if it prohibits those crimes still let them happen. Also

children’s special needs (Fong and Berger, 2010) is one further reason why one has to set

specific tasks force on rescuing victims and beating the pressures initiated by perpetrators

inspiring permanent, controlling terror, capable of sabotaging external too feeble


Other mental health problems may include ‘acute post-traumatic stress symptoms, acute

anxiety and stress disorders, affective disorders, conduct disorders and personality

disorders., low self-esteem, suicidality, poor academic achievement, substance abuse,

disassociation and poor interpersonal relationship quality, affective, behavioral and

cognitive problems, depression, low self-esteem, problems with trusting others, anger, poor

social skills, substance abuse, various forms of physical harm, and suicide’ (Broughton,

2009, p.39). (Cohen & Mannarino, Corcoran & Pillai, in Broughton, 2009, p.18). The list of

psychological and cognitive traumas that may have been caused is endless. Sexual abuses and

the way torturers manage to violate and seclude children affect all dimensions of the

individuals. Of course sexually transmitted diseases and drugs consumption will also directly

affect physical health (Broughton, 2009).




  1. a) ‘Commercialisation’

Commercial sexual exploitation of children may take the form of juvenile prostitution,

child pornography, trafficking of children for sexual purposes, and child marriages

(Lalor, 2003, p.441).

In any circumstances, even though more networked actions and groups of institutions

show endeavours towards being responsive to paedophilic diverse crimes, it is met by

the admission of an ever developing commercialisation sexual exploitation of children

(UNICEF Pacific, 2006: p.36)

Trafficking in children is considered the third most lucrative illegal

trade in the world, following only the sale of illegal drugs and weapons (Esposito,

1998). ”

Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) may take the form of juvenile

prostitution, child pornography, trafficking of children for sexual purposes, and child

marriages. Concern originally emerged regarding the involvement of minors in “sex tourism”

in South East Asia, particularly in Thailand and the Philippines, culminating in a global


conference against CSEC in Stockholm in 1996 (Lalor, 2003). For the USA, little is known

about child prostitution (Fong and Berger, 2010).

However, conservative measures indicate that between 300,000 and 400,000 children

are exploited through prostitution in the United States each year (Spangenberg, 2001;

Willis & Levy, 2002 in Broughton, 2009, p.12)xi.

On what is still called prostitution in a 1994 study by the Institute for Medical Research on

some Pacific Islands known for prostitution ‘found that 30% of the 250 sex workers were

between 13 and 19 years of age and some were as young as 11’ (UNICEF Pacific, 2006,


While thousands of children worldwide are abused, pornography and all other degrees of

representations or actions have been protected by some for being a psychological outlet that

could help potential abusers to fantasize rather than concretely commit crimes (Beech, et


No country is exempt. There is an almost insatiable market-by 1977 there were 264

separate child pornography magazines in America alone (Schlebaum, 1992, p.916).

In 2005, TopTenReviews, Inc. estimated that child porn generates over $US 3 Billion

annually (Ropelato, 2005 in Schell et al., 2006, p.47) and over 100,000 Websites exist

with the primary purpose of selling it to others, according to customs service

estimates (Ropelato, 2005 in Schell et al., 2006, p.47).


  1. b) Monetarisationxii.

One of the main reasons why and reasons how such crimes are not efficiently tackled are to

do with the massive amount of money these trafficking and crimes representxiii. Here again

people abuse other people for gain. Child pornography only is hugely profitable (Esposito,

1998) and has international returns of six billion dollars (Schlebaum, 1992). Schlebaum in

her account of Tim Tate, goes on recalling the so frequent scandals involving academics,

politicians, legal authority, businessmen, etc. (Schlebaum, 1992). It is anyhow known that

pedophilia occurs regardless of the class, social or revenue groups perpetrators are in

(Galiana, 2012). Now, sex tourism is here to demonstrate how higher revenue people go to

developed and less protected countries to abuse children exploited by local population

(Schlagenhauf, 2005).

In contrast, the price of legal implementation, and societal watch guards is sometimes

mentioned by authors. States’ obligations under international law to child victims of

trafficking are more onerous than their obligations to adults (O Briain, 2006) -or at least the

way they are envisaged to be conducted-, which let understand that they will be applied with

less rigour (O Briain, 2006).

Territorially, there are remarks about how communities and localities are more scrutinized

than developed networks (Lalor, 2003). Nevertheless, in an international context the opposite

is possibly to be found, and could even evince individual or personal responsibilities in

developing primarily a discourse perhaps more political but reinforcing the perpetrators’

anonymity- the physicality of people concealed behind much debated concepts of

internationality, conventions, cultures, etc. There are treaties at the UN level framing

trafficking such as the ‘Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the

sale of children, child prostitution and child Pornography’ (UNHCHR, 2008), the ‘World


Congresses against Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents’ (CSEC World

Congress, 2008) under the aegis of the UN not only through UNICEF but also through the

‘Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights’ (OHCHR), the ‘United

Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’, and the ‘ILO/IPEC’, that is the’ International

Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour’ (IPEC) within the ‘International Labour

Organization’ (UNODC, 2008). Though these treaties seem to predominantly be concerned

by the monetisation of sexual abuses or by its networking, fewer documents are on

paedophilia per se that would also target lone individuals not ‘promoting’ or financially

benefiting from the occurrences of the abuses.

  1. c) The problem could be the law

1) Leniency

These are crimes, universally recognised by every nation as crimes by their legal systems.

Although as appalling as human trafficking is,– harming adults and children, the latter who

will in addition suffer from diminished knowledge on how to defend themselves against

gangs, if that is at all possible- it is notoriously policed with much more ‘leniency’ and

sanctioned less than drugs trafficking (Galiana, 2012). Notoriously pimps, and procurers even

when inculpated and this is very rare, go away with negligible two-year sentences (Galiana,

2012), often because they are condemned for other crimes as evidence is not gathered or

because the very crimes they commit is not listed on the national legislation-example, abuses

on boys- (UNICEF Pacific, 2006). Legislative deficiencies may mean that police or court

records do not accurately capture the nature of the offence. For instance, many criminal codes

only recognize sexual abuse as a crime against girls, thus overlooking boy victims of sexual


abuse; and cases of child sexual abuse occurring within the family unit may be mislabelled

solely as “incest”, without noting the age of the victim. Similarly, the criminalization of

prostitution can result in child victims of sexual exploitation being charged as offenders

(UNICEF Pacific, 2006, p.15). Law enforcement officials are reported to frequently find

expedients to charge suspected traffickers with lesser offences, such as corruption of a minor

or assisting a child to enter a country illegally. This is because collecting the evidence to

secure convictions on such charges is easier. This may mean that the child concerned is not

recognised as a ‘victim of trafficking’ and hence does not receive appropriate assistance or

compensation. In effect, there is a danger that trafficked children are denied access to justice

because of the way the law is formulated and the economics of the criminal justice system

(Dottridge, 2008). As an outcome, SAAC crimes are in fact low risk and well-paid criminal

activities (Galiana, 2012) even compared, for instance, to civil servants’ wages in developing

countries. Those low convictions rates compare only to the opacity of the police actions: the

millions of victims go in stark contrast with the low figures of indictment or victims’

protections issues by Interpol or other police. Like the UN’s and other international websites,

and certainly Interpol in particular, these organisations do not let any precise information

about operations, on what they do or achieve as a simple visit to their website leave the

searchers with very little information (Interpol, 2015). Here again this power relation is

extremely upsetting and problematic as for the possibility of further and future operations.

2) Legality, illegality.

We have viewed how, however illegal, such crimes perdure, but there are also instances

where people want these daily atrocities to be endowed with absolutely no boundaries, or any

morality or humanity upheld- to become legal or toleratedxiv.


‘This secretive, highly organized trade is protected’ (Tate in Schlebaum, 1992). The upperhand

of a paedophile mafia helped by many external components, including public ignorance

and indifference, or countered too often with inadequate and poorly enforced laws weakened

by many ‘legal loopholes’. Tate’s account might be 20 years old, but is drawn out of a legal

background allowing confusion, approximation in the texts to be exploited. Once more

paedophilia atrocities may found ways as far as being ‘advertised’ and that with the help of

the law.

Obscenity is illegal pornography; it could be that the sex is too explicit, or it could be

that otherwise legal porn is just displayed to the wrong audience or advertised in the

wrong way. The Supreme Court has had trouble drawing a line between legal and

obscene sexual images. Some judges, like Black and Douglas, argued that the First

Amendment protected all speech, including sexual speech and images. (Schlebaum,

1992, p. 917).

The amount of pornographic material available in parallel to the suggestive images within the

main stream media or other sexualisation (Daily mail, 2007), and particularly almost in daily

diffusion as regular adds on the internet (Esposito, 1998) (Daily mail, 2007), contrasted with

the quasi or total absence of activism and awareness campaign about these criminal offenses,

bring to the deduction of a so striking unbalance or upfront pornographisation of

relationships, and of all relationships in publicity and the media that would legitimised and

almost incentivised the ‘sexual utilisation’ of children.

The law of freedom of expression, and the loopholes or grey areas between legislature and

courts (Schlebaum, 1992) as to what are ‘permissible sexual images and illegal ones’

(Mirkin, 2009, p.239), might protect suggestive photos, depictions through cartoons or


fictional writings (Mirkin, 2009)xv. Legislators have gone as far as protecting freedom of

assembly and therefore freedom of campaigning up to the 1980’s in the U.K with the

notorious ‘Paedophile Information Exchange scandal’; notoriously involving two MPs (The

Daily Beast, 2013) (Castella, 2014), but less noted, the whole nation harbouring openly

paedophile ‘activist’ organisations. Still in Europe, in Holland, in 2013, judges ruled out in

favour for an organization campaigning for the legalization of paedophilia to be able to

continue to be legally registered (Taylor, 2013). Authorised by the jurisprudence of the

Netherlands, if people are allowed to campaign for being a paedophile, then there would be a

collapse of the boundaries between this, inciting to commit these abuses, and committing the

abuses themselves.

  1. d) Testimonies, disclosure and judicial failures

At the prosecution level, children, mostly teenagers may end up being prosecuted rather than

looked after (Fong and Berger, 2010)xvixvii. When calling for help or when giving testimony,

victims or families of victims may not be believed but be put into doubt, or will not be

investigated (Schlebaum, 1992)xviii, will not be helped, or protected (Fong and Berger, 2010).

Victims of families and of traffickers may then end up being victims of legal and static


Otherwise, the very traumas inflict upon the victims often will impair if not impeach

testimonies to take place. Very high level of distrust will lead to refusal to communicate and

even to hostility towards social services, police or any possible rescuers (O Briain, 2006).

Psychologists talk about cognitive impairment following the abuses but also the

manipulations of the vision of the world: a constant and consistent indoctrination by the


perpetrators plays a fundamental role (Kelly et al, 1995). The question of the victims’ special

needs is often cited (Fong and Berger), and the role of the perpetrations onto the victims

could even go as far as ensuring adverse or anti-social behaviours, or at least impairing any

communication skills in order to make sure the victims do not talk or link with tiers people.

In fact, rehabilitations of the victims take so long that it makes more difficult for the

perpetrators to be traced (Fong and Berger). Traumas will be also be induced just to cause

further impairment to the victims and thus make potential identification very difficult. Also,

the problems of occurrences happening in childhood is in general faced with difficulties in

clear remembrances, at least as long as mental or psychological trauma are concerned. As for

the physical traumas they might be at the earlier age and then could not be factually

remembered at all. Even prosecution processes take a long time (O Briain, 2006) and we are

reminded of the means and money that are made a problem in many reports. The longer the

time between the contact with the traffickers and the interview, the more likely the child will

be to feel safe and to disclose details of the experience.

Finally, the one reasons why things are not changing the way they should is the fear criminal

networks inspire (and certainly more when officials are involved actively) (Fong and Berger,

2010) and the opaque veil under which they operate. Trafficking networks may be very

specialized (each person having very defined functions not knowing about the rest of the

rings – ranging from paper forgery, to transportation, to distribution-) (O Briain, 2006)

(Broughton, 2009). This fragmentation will make them difficult to investigate and

dismantled, or even for the criminals to be fully aware of the degree of their offenses. If

officials fear reprisals or are not in the position of actions, one can only image what children

may go through in term of retaliation to them and to their family, against highly dangerous

criminals ready to do anything to get away from investigations. In this case including the

riddance of evidence (O Briain, 2006) and to view witnesses as ‘physical evidence’: since


criminals of this kind are only logically renowned for beyond extreme violence actions and

murders. Shaming is also used, as fearing the law and the police are (O Briain, 2006).

Unbelievably enough trafficked teenagers have been charged with prostitution, ‘illegal work,

petty theft, begging, drugs use for which they are taught to flee the police’ (Fong and Berger,

2010, p.313), under those circumstances there is no wonder left as to why and how those

crimes against humanity sustain themselvesxix.

In terms of disclosure, usually victims wait for years before talking about the abuses (Jensen

et al., 2005). Manipulations by the perpetrators, the fear of escalating violence and the one of

not being believed are additional reasons to the unspeakable suffering experienced sometimes

a long time without even knowing that their perpetrators should be or could be have been

incarcerated for years for the very crimes only the victims may know about. On the contrary,

easing disclosure would mean that it results ‘in some positive consequences, and not too

many negative consequences’ (Jensen et al., 2005, p.1410). In fact, that abuses and threats

stop with perspectives of better care would be a good enough start if not overridden by a

system that incredibly might discard and discredit them. Children more often need a specific

structured and solid support to start talking about the abuses (Jensen et al., 2005). As others

simply say, another prerequisite for them to start telling their stories is ‘thinking they would

be believed’ (Orchard, 2007). It is obvious that the ‘humiliation’ of being rejected by the

safeguards of the society cannot but doubling the state of shock, and disbelief, the state of

utter horror at the certitude of being completely surrounded. In 2013, in Oxford region, for

the years long trafficking of 50 girls (The guardian, 2013)xx and in 2015 , police finally

apprehended several local gangs having sexually abused and exploited 373 girls (The

guardian, 2015) (BBC, 2015), does not let us wonder about the degree of incompetency at

play to ignore such an amount of abuses, because the police have been found complicit of


denigrating systematically complaints from the victims in saying that they were consenting to

a ‘way of life’, to drug consumption and subsequent systematic abuses (The guardian, 2013).

There is a larger need for disclosurexxi as to how society as a whole manages or fails to face

and even fails to be speaking about those crimesxxii. Although there is need for exposure to

the realities of sexual crimes against children, on how these can be, and should be stopped;

this disclosure itself could be threatening the dominant moral order since concurrently

unveiling its invalidity (Jensen et al., 2005). Joining what is said on how the burden might be

put on the victims to fight off (Whitaker et al., 2008), how can we deem a child or teen to

have the capacity of disclosing what society itself maintains practically unspoken of, without

being its direct victim and ‘letting it happen’.



  1. a) Where

If no society is exempt of this grievous crimes (Lalor, 2003), certain regions, or countries are

particularly at risksxxiii (Walker, 2014). At the extreme end, some countries afflicted with

armed conflict, such as ‘civil unrest and inter-tribal warfare has led to child sexual assault’ (O

Briain, 2006, p.16). However, in some part of the world, the danger is constant. For example,

Eastern Europe (Walker, 2014) xxiv and Asia (Lalor, 2003) might be more susceptible to sex

tourism with in some places a very high proportion of under-age girls (UNICEF Pacific,

2006) preyed on by what is still called by most people ‘prostitution’. Logically, criminals


target the places where weak legal systems turn regions into sex tourism destinations (Willis,

2002). While one has to keep in mind not to commit the mistake of minimising sex tourism,

studies also reveal that, contrary to popular belief, the perpetrators of sexual abuses and

exploitation of children are also overwhelmingly men from the local communityxxv (UNICEF

Pacific, 2006, p.1). The threat therefore remains mostly local not international. In richer

countries the type of abuses is lessened but still very clearly occurring with ‘many girls

reporting “sexual victimisation”, for example, by harassment or exposure to pornography’

(Walker, 2014). In the UK, the 2013 Saville scandal broke. Saville, a TV and BBC Radio

anchor whose audience was principally teenagers, was very famous, socialising with British

royalty and knighted for charitable services. Post mortem investigations found he was guilty

of dozens of sexual assaults on children (8 out of 10 of his victims) and adults in National

Health Service hospitals over several decades (Evans, 2015). Reports suggest NHS

participation with staff turning a blind eye to Saville’s wrongdoings, as he campaigned for

and raised donations for hospitals, leaving Saville with 24-hour staff access to services users’

rooms and ambulances (Evans, 2015).xxvi.

  1. b) Migrations

Socio-economic and socio-cultural changes have been linked with an increase in child

maltreatment that may be in large part due to migrations (Lalor, 2003). Traffickers target

preferably people already victims of poverty or underprivileged. Lack of opportunities locally

make people willing to take a chance elsewhere and as they move, they get caught in the

migration process (O Briain, 2006)xxvii. The migrants are especially at risks, moreover when

teenagers travel alone (Dottridge, 2008). Also, the children of migrants whose parents have to

work in other provinces or towns are left under sometimes unsuitable care (Lalor, 2003).


As a result, many children are left either alone at home during the

weekdays after school or with nannies and grandparents, who may not

give them proper care. Thus, they are vulnerable to sexual abuse from

opportunistic predators (Madu & Peltzer, 2001, p.318 in Lalor, 2003,


However, it might be observed that immigration problems are predominantly internal rather

than cross-national. (Dottridge, 2008). Still this finding may seem logical as globally, internal

migrations are much more voluminous than cross-national ones. Nevertheless, those locations

that are at the national level and within regions could reveal itself to be without much hope to

fall under any international purview and protection. Here the extremely difficult situations of

being in no specific territories, being outside or outsiders to communities, with financial,

administrative papers, identity and nationality issues become what traffickers and other

abusers thrive to profiteer from. The traffickers will transport some of their victims acrossborders

(Broughton, 2009) turning incompetency from states to provide security into human


  1. c) Employability

The traps of trafficking, and the need for cash in absence of a regular job get interwoven.

People deprived of work become desperate for a job and are taking many risks to obtain one.

Traffickers know it and exploit people willingness to move out of their region (Orchard,

2007), which make them of course vulnerable to any attacks.


Amalgam, is also used under the shape of deception in ‘recruitment’. Migrants and other workers are

being trapped under false pretence of a job (O Briain, 2006). They follow a recruitment

process and end up tied, physically constraints, with their papers stolen (Galiana, 2012) and

any types of situations of forced trafficking might involve.

For example, a young person might answer an advertisement for work in a hotel or bar, but

end up prostituted in such a place. (O Briain, 2006)

Unemployment when imbricated with poverty will have people facing survival dilemma. In

dire financial situations people then ‘may then turn to theft, robbery and prostitution’

(UNICEF Pacific, 2006, p.21). They also may then turn to trafficking.

  1. d) By whom

The paedophiles and sexual trafficking networks are becoming bigger, more complex, more

technologized, more internationalised, more specialised and difficult to localize. However

here will be discussed not the traffickers as people belonging to organized criminal networks,

but all perpetrators in the surroundings of the children.

  1. e) Surroundings

Just like for rapes, the mistaken emphasise on ‘stranger danger’ reinforced the false idea that

sexual abuses on children come predominantly from strangers, but just like the whole

criminologist community of experts acknowledges, in the majority of cases it actually comes

from the victims’ ‘extended family’ or from friends, neighbours or acquaintances. Thus

‘abuses usually but not always are organized by an intermediary (parent, family member,

procurer, teacher and so on’ (Lalor, 2003, p.446), or in psychological term, ‘directly from


people they know and trust’ (UNICEF Pacific, 2006, p.viii). One can also remark that ‘the

use of inaccurate stereotypes’ on who may abuse them and who may not or on the contrary

help them, will pose an even greater problem to children’s vulnerability and how they may be

manipulated (Dottridge, 2008).

  1. f) Family

That perpetrators are family members and acquaintance (Finkelhor et al., 2005; US DHHS,

2007) is a general knowledge in every comprehensive and representative survey on

paedophilia. It also would suggest that intended perpetrations will be done by people

purposefully creating a family or family ties or entering professions in close contacts with

children. This closeness to the victim makes it particularly difficult for children to control

(Whitaker and al, 2007) and for others to intervene.

Contrarily to what might be seen in the media or entertainment platform, in US CSI movies

featuring ‘good’ to ‘very good’ cops ending up ‘re-entrusting’ abandoned child to sexual

networks to parents, more secured approach should prevail. Although that the state can take

over children from parents is indeed a huge concern as any abuses from the social services

(that are known to be at the sources of many) would have too dramatic consequences on

family lives to be welcome whenever sexual abuses were in fact non-existent within the

family. But at least very close enquiry and partnership with the parents must happen when


If family reunification or repatriation is unsafe, child welfare agencies

mustwork to createa permanency plan that is in the best interest of the

child (O’Neill Richard in Broughton, 2009, p.45).


  1. g) social services/care

Another very worrying data for the integrity of the social services, and also for the possibility

of taking someone out of those circles, is the incredible percentage of children ‘promised’ to

prostitution whenever they are under ‘social services care’ (Kelly et al, 1995), or ‘vulnerable

youth on the street or from the foster care system’ (Broughton, 2009).

  1. h) Schools

Sexual exploitation and assaults against female students and pupils by male pupils and

teachers have been documented as serious in scale and gravity by Human Rights Watch in

South Africa. Another phenomenon on the rise is the one of “sugar daddies” and “sugar

mommies”, that is older people targeting teenagers need for help as teenagers lack of money

impact on their ability to pay for school expenses (Lalor, 2003). Just like in Europe and

America where university students are said to be more prone to ‘escorts types of cashmakers’,

alarmingly the raise in students’ fees and living costs is at the origin of this

expending forms of exploitation.

At the worst of time, children may be sexually abused and exploited

everywhere they go: ‘in the home, school, community, in the workplace

and brothels more so especially in some regions (UNICEF & ANNPCAN,

in Lalor, 2003, p.441).


  1. i) Gender

Sexual exploitation is also gendered and in particular where gender relations are violent

based (Dottridge, 2008) (Fong and Berger, 2010). Sexual abuses could be backtracked from

the very ‘social relations between men and women, adults and children’ (Fong and Berger,

2010, p.19), and particularly due to ‘the low status of women and children’ (UNICEF

Pacific, 2006, p.53).

Globally, sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children are due to

factors such as gender inequality and the low status of children

(particularly girls), increased pressure on families to engage in monetized

economies, separation of parents from children due to conflict, natural

disasters and the migration of parents in search of employment. (UNICEF

Pacific, 2006, p.53)

Also perpetrators are overwhelmingly males and typically men with resources or other power

in the community’ (UNICEF Pacific, 2006, p.1). Many feminist writers theorised on how

pornography or other representation depicturing unbalanced gender relations, is in fact an

image or transcription of the power that men have and exercise over women (Purvis and

Ward, 2006). Pedophiles are also said to look for characteristics of children (e.g., compliance,

petiteness, submissiveness, etc.) in their sexual relationships with women (Schell et al.,

2006). Of course the opposite must be true, while infantilising women, they give to the

perpetrators legitimacy in how women are made younger to satisfy the desire for a power that

brings (or is brought by) dependency and manipulationxxviii. Even though feminist theories

have been deemed being not credible as their view on how the state are supportive of abuses

because it is a conspirational theory and therefore proves to be a reductionist view of men and


patriarchy (Purvis and Ward, 2006); here only the word patriarchal is to be moved to render it

credible in the sense that the victims are not all women but women, sexual victims of the

system as a whole, made by both sex.

  1. j) Mediatisation

What the media has difficulties to report on is the way people knew about it and never

reached for the alarm, as media themselves may well under-report or under-investigate

situations not yet or not yet on the brink of being the object of general scrutiny.

What might let someone in search for information wonder with the media is how under the

spotlight are cases made famous- perhaps sometimes because of their being more

researchable or because of the personally, sociability, or popularity of the people involved.

Notwithstanding the causes, media will typically be focusing on the plight of a few

individualsxxix, leaving the thousands other at risks or in the shadows. They also take over

extraordinary cases, for example the murder of Sarah Paine in 2000, and the lengthy

campaign following, advocating the “Sarah’s law”, that would allow people to know the

whereabouts of released sex offenders, and has been used thereafter as a pilot in policy in

some regions of England (Greenslade, 2008). What makes this types of reporting questioning

the probity of the media as a whole is that in contrast the work around ‘200 000 estimated

Britain’ s paedophiles of other paedophiles hunt’ (BBC, 2002) stays very discreet, only

statistically mentioned without an effort at discussing policies, protection, prevention, etc.

At the same time, one well may stop being too disparaging of those reporting done by the

BBC for example as other media, from other parts of the word may not even initiate the

debate or harbour the subject. Even if BBC or other types of mass mediatisation are not


generally very informative, some images say long, and succeed in showing what the

dereliction of a system that does not manage to protect children from their sexual abusers

might look likexxx.

  1. k) Socio-economic and socio-cultural changes

One of the parameters justifying the socio-economic and socio-cultural changes argument is

the amount of secrecy and taboosation, even though this is incrementally being overturned (O

Briain, 2006), found in what call themselves ‘traditional societies’. On a double account, not

secrecy but a forged version of what happens or does not happen will getting worse, if

minorities or all other people do not trust the judicial system or the police- moreover so when

the society at large practise a ‘do not tell policies’. Out of this puritanism schema, some

traditional societies do not taboos things but formalize those crimes, often societal crimes in

their scope and scale, through child marriage (Lalor, 2003)xxxi, for example, or through

inextricable poverty, censorship or illiteracyxxxii .

To illustrate how ‘forces of modernity, “foreign influences,” and rapid social change’ (Lalor,

2003, p.440) have been pointed to as the ready-made culprits is the simultaneity with which

people regard them to be the causes of abuses but delayed ‘attention given to sexual abuse of

children in their own homes/communities’. As SAAC are ‘qualified as being “unnatural,”

and very rare’, or unworthy of the commentators’ origins or nations’, (Lalor, 2003, p.440)

perpetrators are covered and left unworried as warnings against their crimes do not have a

place even in the oral tradition, or only to assert them as inexistent or impossible- in one

word- unsayable.

As far as ‘religious’ societies consider themselves to be traditional, child marriages whose

toll represent about one third of today’s women aged 20 to 24 globally (UNICEF, 2015),


enforced prostitution (which in case of under-age individuals can never be done with consent,

so will always have to be treated as aggravated forms of tortures) and child molesting occur

in countries overwhelmingly defined as Hindu, Islamic, or Catholicxxxiii.

Pope Francis has provoked a debate within the Catholic Church after

being quoted as saying that one in 50 Catholic clerics is a paedophile

(Mckenna, 2014).

Recently, and after disclosures of many sexual abuses perpetrated by priests, Dumortier,

rector at the Pontifical Gregorian University advocate the development of a ‘culture of

listening, a different face to the culture of silence,” (Hornby, 2012, p.1)

This remark though supposed to support effective punishment and imprisonment for SAAC

crimes, have been branded as “window dressing” and that the Vatican should hand over their

files on abuses to the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the Hague (Hornby, 2012).

Hindu societies have made ‘child prostitution’ – that should be called ‘child sexual

trafficking’ be it by their communities or families – part of the cast system. Within the

Devadasi ‘cult’ women are being told that they ‘sell their body’ in order to provide for their

families (Orchard, 2007). It has transformed forced prostitution into the appearance of an

obligation interpreted as a donation from designated women to the community. To close-up

on any successful attempt at stopping that plight, the devadasi’ victims are stigmatised while

put under unquestioned coercion coming from the society as a whole as soon as they are

teenagers and obviously at an earlier age, with that has been called “the power of the ‘whore

stigma’, which functions are to distinguish ‘‘virtuous women’’ from women in prostitution

(Pheterson, in Orchard, 2007, p 2387)”. The devadasi’s inextricable social situation


demonstrates how a system has lost sight of humane humanity, of sanity, or humanity itself

and rules through dire seclusion as girls and awomen do not leave the houses (Orchard,

2007). The devadasi-dhandha cults literally explain how seclusion from a knowing

mainstream society has worked in maintaining social horrors in plain sight without them

being even denunciated.

  1. l) Modernisation and the internet

The Internet has caused the most explosive growth in child pornography than at any other

time in history. One of the reasons for this explosion is that technology itself has greatly

reduced the barrier to entry for the production and distribution of child porn. Cameras and

powerful editing multimedia software are becoming more affordable and easier to use,

simplifying the process of creating and distributing child porn (Schell et al., 2006, p.50) of

transmission from one pedophile to many other pedophiles and from one country to many

other countries. (Schell et al., 2006, p.47). The entire literature is pervaded with messages of

caution about how internetxxxiv (Schell et al., 2006) (Esposito, 1998) (Beech, et al., 2008) and

means of communication. The multiplication and inexpensiveness of media, and the hi-tech

level of forfeiture the mafia uses are a direct threat to ‘cyber patrols’ that try to contain and

stop them (Prat, 2005). Internet is also widely used because of its capacity at evading the law,

or of its not being regulated (Esposito, 1998). Internet addresses stay unanimous and is a

secure way to exchange illegal materials. Addresses and websites are open and closed with

great ease (Esposito, 1998)xxxv. Of course pornography will help intensifying ‘large scale

sexual exploitation of children and fuels the myriad networks of active child abuse’

(Schlebaum, 1992, p.917). Finally, it will participate in ‘legitimising’, ‘officialising’ and by


extension ‘legalising’ sexual abuses. When material is found, the providers is asked to

remove child pornography, and it is only when the provider fail to do so that the police will

have to intervene (Esposito, 1998). In other words, evidence is just got rid of instead of being



  1. a) Convention

Covering sexual exploitation and abuses, the UN convention on the Rights of the Child

(CRC) has been and remained famously the most signed of all the UN conventions, every

country in the world signed it (except for the United States of America and Somalia)

(Tepelus, 2008).

Such a universal stamp of approval only reflects the common strict opposition to pedophilia

and stays essential to start true international cooperation and shared converging effort.

The CRC has agreed to protect children against all forms of sexual exploitation and

sexual abuse, and to prevent children from being abducted, sold or trafficked for any

purpose. An additional Protocol to the CRC sets out the minimum requirements for a

national law that will protect children from sale, prostitution and pornography. (O

Briain, 2006, p.10)


Another one is the Council of Europe’s Convention on Protection of Children against Sexual

Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Lanzarote Convention) ratified by 39 states (C.O.E, 2016)

with its Lanzarote Committee bringing together all states that ratified it in 2007 came into

force on 1 July 2010 (Saxby, 2008). It looks into a number of different areas including

‘prevention, assistance to victims, treatment of offenders, prosecution and investigation, and

international co-operation’ (Saxby, 2008, p. 282). These treaties promulgating legal actions

against SAAC with intent at being comprehensive are the clear signs that pedophilia is

politically addressed. Nevertheless, no matter how public and diverse programs against

sexual abuses might appear, they all tend to be for professionals and others already looking

for information. This will have to be warmly welcomed because professional networking and

real build-on information and coordinated actions remain a huge problem for professional.

Now, however vital the information to professionals is, as long as the general public and the

potential perpetrators or victims are not reached nor targeted, all will forcibly seem like a lost


  1. b) Dysfunctional: a system of impediments

We saw how the judiciary failed at times in the chapter II, here we will draw attention to

sexual abuses being internationally untouched partly due to its getting away with sanctions

through playing with laws and locations. While this global problem by nature especially

requires multi-layered organisations (Saxby, 2008), it suffers xxxvi from a lack of cooperation,

and liaison between non-profit organizations and governmental organizations (Fong and

Berger, 2010) and even between non-profit organizations to themselves and governmental

organizations with international, intergovernmental or regional ones or across different


departments of a same organ or of a same country (Galiana, 2012). Stubborn and endemic

refusal for keeping or sharing information is recognised as being at the heart of the

impossibility of inaction (Galiana, 2012). The lack of international cooperation cannot be

stressed enough as trafficking and the technology they are using, including internet, make the

sexual exploitation of children an international (Esposito, 1998) plague. On a topic of

international ampleness, a lack of intergovernmental efforts creates vacuum, i.e.

unlawfulness. When international efforts are made through legislation, the lack of homogeneity

for example, in definitions, changing according to various national laws (Hornby, 2012) makes

cohesion and improvement hazardous and tedious. The lack of uniformity also affects

strategies implementation and may cause their being under-utilized in many countries

(Broughton, 2009) (Fong and Berger, 2010).

  1. c) Human right, duty or responsibility

Most programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse have focused on

potential victims, teaching them to avoid child molesters. Such programs can be

important, but they are likely only part of a broad solution. Programs focusing on

potential victims put much of the prevention burden on the child, who may

have limited ability to engage in prevention behaviors (Whitaker et al., 2008, p. 529).

A rights-based approach holds the aims of ensuring that ‘the child’s best interests be given

primary consideration’ in all actions (Dottridge, 2008, p 27); and is crucial in putting the

child needs as the objectives, as well as structuring long-term types of interventions.

However, the child rights-based measures to trafficking have for possible unwanted side-effects


the classic limitations of some feminist theories, dominant in health and care, in that its focus

on the child has for consequences the diminishing focus on perpetrators (Purvis and Ward,

2006)- here protection, prevention, punishment and therapy. However, to avoid facing the

children’ carers or wardens cannot not solve the problems in depth or before they occur,

particularly as children cannot fight for their rights as the results of their dependency and

sometimes financial and legal tutelage. It had to be noted that debates such as whether a

child’s human right to education applies not just against governments but also against a

child’s parent (Stanford, 2016) still take place within the human rights philosophers’

communities. As children abusers will use any possibility for their crimes to stay ‘private’

whenever not in the possibility to officialise them, this example of prominent question on

rights and duties could be troubling as education is a key to children and teenagers’ bringing

up and for many the only public places they actually have to attend.

  1. d) Aid and Program’s solutions- holistic or specific

The overwhelming message seems to be that protecting children from this kind of

abuse is both complex and difficult, requiring constant re-evaluation of methods and

strategies. (Saxby, 2008, p.281)

Just like Saxby notes below, what is true of the social services, families, communities, is true

politically and the only way one will be able to find justice and decency with lay in the

constant renewal, and thought again search for better programs, policies and practices. Three

main objectives for actions to be comprehensive come to the fore: to prevent human

trafficking, protect victims, and prosecute traffickers (Fong and Berger, 2010) (Orchard,


2007). Just like explained in the first chapter, holistic considerations are necessary to prevent

abuses. It is often because children run away from harming situations that they start being

exploited (Dottridge, 2008). Responding to these sets of needs and actions UNICEF has

advocated to address child trafficking for all purposes (Willis, 2002). It however insisted on

taking specific measures to stop child trafficking against mixing it with measures taken

against human trafficking as a whole (Dottridge, 2008). However, when donors and actions

insist on dealing with all ranges of child exploitation covering labour, physical violence etc.,

it diminishes the possibility for clear and sustained programs specifically on sexual

exploitation or sexual abuses to take placexxxvii (Dottridge, 2008). Variances will be present

between countries, and across community (Willis, 2002). Besides, children suffering from

incest, and trafficking, two different abuses processes and different abusers, will need

different type of intervention (Fong and Berger, 2010). That children rights had not been told

apart from adult rights is of course an aberration, as it meant that they were left at the hands

of their torturers. That a child’s history be taken holistically makes sense as people have to be

aware of all the dangers, and too selective approaches could not be but dangerously

incomplete, but amongst all these erroneous amalgamations one more could be the one of

treating abuses of totally different gravity the same way.

  1. e) Raising awareness

A specific stance insisting on raising awareness and building community resilience through the

use of public campaigns, training and telephone hotlines (Orchard, 2007) is now often taken.

Awareness of the danger is of course fundamental for people to be able to fight it off. It has


been said that even specialised professionals (ex: social workers, police or immigration

officers, teachers, or here any professionals in contact with children (Kelly et al, 1995)

may be very unknowledgeable about the dangers but also the means of countering it (Kelly et

al, 1995); and let alone individuals, parents or communities’ leaders. Awareness may also

seem the most urgent and sensitive as lack of awareness strikes also the victims. They may

not know about their future (Orchard, 2007) and do not realise they are the objects of

exploitation and not care, and thus cannot entirely or successfully fathom on the present

calamities, the gravity of their situation and of what they have been made to endure, or the

implications of what they have undergoing. If raising awareness is not always enough, is that

the victims also may think it is impossible to go away (Kelly et al, 1995), but more than that

one can be sure that everything is done by the perpetrators to keep the victims in that state of

doubtless fear, resignation, ignorance and more and more harming traumas for the rest of

their lives.

Though raising awareness offers great hope as it would transform the latent inaction and

silent by default postures taken by the authorities, the vast pool of ideas and prototypes

projects inducing awareness raising might also hide the fact that campaigning the public

could have become NGOs’ prerogatives. And that on the other hand scrutiny by or into the

states, only true powerful enough to beat very organised criminals apparel or entire

communities will not be possible.

  1. f) Schools

The states, after having suppressed proportionate punishment by too well-known lenient

sentences on acts of paedophilia are also not providing any awareness programs in schools.


Like HIV campaign education never or scarcely reached schools, and when it was up to most

popular soap to make a significant raise in people screening for the disease. Just like DST,

topics such as incest’s and juvenile prostitution (sexual trafficking or sexual abuses), will

never appear at schools and yet less on the soaps broadcast by the BBC or any other channels

(Gould, 2010). If a lack of education affects vulnerabilisation; however, the education system

itself does not touch upon the subject albeit its remaining the only way for children in danger

to be informedxxxviii. Awareness campaigns play an important role in triggering disclosure

(Jensen et al., 2005) xxxix as well as helping the communities towards preventive actions

through raising the problem and keeping people on the watch.

  1. g) Health reasons given as the redundant reasons for countering paedophilia, not the

necessary attacks on predators

In terms of resolution, and justifications in debates, the overemphasis on health to justify

condemning sexual abuses against children may indicate that the health of children here is

primordial to establish, as cynically as it is, as only the least of SAAC’s consequences can be

expressed through words: that sexual exploitation is profoundly harming to its victims and

the society as a whole.

The society is partly guilty of it, which is never the case with the victims.

The great insistence on women’s physical and mental health and their ability ‘to other kind of

productions’, see (Whitaker et al., 2008) is or may be again a way of minimising why sexual

abuses must be stopped. Insisting on people’ health versus their being tortures might remind

similar arguments used in environmental issues where people keep forests not for all what

they represent, are and shelter but to have future energy to burn. Within that types of


discourses, health might become a way of advancing political agenda, enriching certain

people and institutions to the detriment of others. Somewhat a person’s needs are attended for

what she will bring ‘materially’ to her community’s economic potential, to a community that

would and have used her life for the same effect via ‘prostitution’. In this framework of ideas,

the individual still belongs to the community who is asked to bring her health in order to be

able to have better re-conduction, or production rate. Yet again the stigmatisation of

prostitution serving the mainstream society in that they are above questioning, to stop this

trade not because we let those atrocities happen but because they would be healthier?

There is a growing recognition that the prevention of child sexual abuse is a critical

public health concern (Daro, 1994;Hammond, 2003; McMahon & Puett, 1999;

Mercy, 1999; Whitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005 in Whitaker et al., 2008).

Ultimately, to try to convince people or perpetrators of the wrong doing through means to an

end theorisation all over the literature and put forward by the UNICEF itself, is of utmost

concern. Following the cosmopolitan view that we might not reach an agreement not because

we agree on the causes but on the outcomes. That is prostitution might well be ok, or not here

is not the question, women’s health only and not the way people treat people and maintain

them into prostitution. A taboo on the state of our society, displacement of the subject on how

come this type of violations co-occurs with wealth and a more modernised, efficient,

elaborated world, that allow have and have-nots and that anyhow could start counting

prostitution as work. Within these programs, some initiatives can drive away from helping

the victims as far as harnessing the ‘distribution of condom or sexual health advise instead of

tracking down perpetrators and punishing them with penalties’ (Siverts, 2003). If one cannot

deny that it will be preventing sexual transmissible diseases; it is also mere accommodations

towards the crimes. Some will say that it minimises the impacts without addressing what is


wrong and evil. But one could also say that it is only enabling the terrors to last longer, with

professionalised ways surrounding them, with nurses and social workers as helpers, instead of

the location holding child and adult sexual trafficking to be judiciary, or militarily sized when

necessary, and no doubt it would be in many cases in order to dismantle then. Instead of this,

children and under-age teenagers are given ‘sex aid’xl.

  1. h) With what to help?

Even though many things are to be improved, the support to victims of human trafficking is

also said to be getting better (Broughton, 2009). Priority should be on the need for a better

education (Brabant, 2011) (Siverts, 2003), vocational training, recreational and social

services (Siverts, 2003). This is true for the children as well as for the caregivers (Brabant,

2011). Organisations such as ‘Stopping child marriage’ and many others, campaign for better

maternal health and every step towards the inclusions of girls into sustainable economic

development (Brabant, 2011), that is basics principles of equality and human rights for all

that are keys Millennium Development Goals (Brabant, 2011).

Of course money and resources are un-controversially needed to break the state of deep

vulnerability in which children and their families, or future victims are secluded (Brabant,

2011), fated to inter-generational repetition- even though perpetrators will take

families apart in order to prevent solidarity (Orchard, 2007) or the better

possibility for self-help to succeed xli. Although funds are crucial, questions remain

about how effectively they could be used if societies are not using the big alleys, such as

schools, police, and judicial active participation. Also as long as work is not a right, self43

sufficiency will not be reached by a portion of the population. Finally, since paedophilia is

also a community, or society related problem, it cannot be staunched by money only, but will

be fuelled by the power unbalances generated by the injustice money provokes or permits.

Give money to the victims, while money has been the tools or the motives of perpetrators,

just cannot be enough.

  1. i) The danger of a so powerful tool

One absolute crime, the one of sexual abuses against children, appeals for ultimate resolution

but what if justice becomes distorted (Astapenia, 2013). One can feel how people in power

could end up resolving in transferring the decision making concerning the child to the

institutions, going as far as separating families that was functionalxlii, or just bullying and

pointing out parents whose only fault is the lack of means (abuses of power where risks does

not exist in the family, for example how gay parents could be targetedxliii as not being stable

enough because of their sexual orientation are enough for the society to alienate or target

them). For yet another confusion in term and amalgamation, paedophiles seek protection

under ‘sexual minorities rights’ often saying that homosexuals are protected under that

category (Munro, 2014) (Huffington Post, 2016). Every at work dishonesty, and preestablished

power abuses could be used to pretend as a right for an adult to enforce sexual

assaults upon children- or to attempt to lower the age of consent (maybe similarly to the age

for voting to be lowered) in order for not qualifying as rape by defaultxliv. Gay people or very

poor people or in precarious situations are the typical examples of who have been

systematically pointed out as being paedophiles (Daily Dot, 2015) because of course,

homophobesxlv or simply people wanting to harm, and control others, would use a paedophile


label as the ultimate insults and through it to put doubt on every aspect of the integrity of

those slanders’ victims. On the other hand, decisions must be taken, and without forbidding

the child to still have this parents, to put anything into place to bar any danger of sexual

molestationxlvi. Did sexual abuses on children stay under-checked because of the enormity of

the allegations or revelation? What would happen if people start pointing at without real

proofs, or abuse their power, i.e. the power of assessing family suitability- no greatest distress

for a parent that the loss of their children in case of offspring unjustly remove from family.

Or could it impeach, strong bond between adults and kids to be formed, through the fear of

what situation of proximity or intimacy could then inspire? Or stop distinguishing cases of

relationship between 16 years old and 25 years old, and the persecutions by serial rapists or

expert traffickers?

In parallel to laissez-faire, usually the very people, amongst them politicians that advocate

deregulation will champion punishment such as castrationxlvii. Castrations as tortures have

been widely utilised historically; castration laws are now applied in Macedonia (The

Associated Press, 2014), are considered in Russia (R.T, 2011) and even Australia, and have

been used recently in the US (Johnson, 2011), and in many other countries such as Indonesia.

Such mutilation will not stop a whole business or social or mediatisation trend, that are

backed otherwise and nor will it stop the financial causes, incentivising, domineering,

harming and sadistic attitudes, often at the heart of sexual abuses (Purvis and Ward, 2006). If

failure of justice cannot be repaired. Also paedophilia is torture and do not need a sex drive to

torture. Usually very fundamentalist people asking for castration, might well be the same

people practising FGM or people for so un-equalitarian society that they want to dig deeper

classification, that is castrated the paedophile that did not stay hidden enough or without

enough protection. People advocating castration the same people using prostitution, mainly

fed by un-equalitarian society and women abused from the start of their childhood.


Emasculation, bundle of very violent emotional reactions, while backed by regimes

producing inequalities, passive police, economic and educational abysses. And creating

empires too separated and free from a too bias and costly law. One therefore cannot count on

a circus trick, (while Female Genital Mutilations are reintroduced in Europe and in the US,

just as cultural features) analogical enough to the substitute ablation of the entire justice

system guilt.


  1. a) Are collections of data working at all?

Writers’ opinions diverge. On one hand, statistics attest that data processing has multiplied

(Dottridge, 2008) (Schell et al., 2006) (UNICEF Pacific, 2006), on the other, that they are too

few or vague. Supranational successes have, for example permitted the adoption of the UN

Trafficking Protocol, ‘prompting new research and numerous publications on the subject’

(Dottridge, 2008, p.7). Of course the sine qua non question of availability of data will occur.

UNICEF replies that the visibility of SAAC and children sexual trafficking (at the other end

of the ones on measures promulgated to end it) and the short period of time over which one

can gather insights is in itself telling about how sexual violence against children is alarmingly

present (UNICEF Pacific, 2006). If growing concerns maybe be witnessed, the reality on the

grounds says otherwise. Millions of children are victims of paedophiles, rapists and captors

(Fong and Berger, 2010)xlix. If statistics when they exist present an altogether different

viewpoint from those opinions, from people affirming that things could look up while


statistics are tragically high, it must then be the summary or typical diagnosis of a pervasive

phenomenon just coming to the surface. To reconcile these data could be a simple appeal to

deduction. It must be that statistics are implicitly assessed to have been higher beforehandwhich

is historically very likely true in many parts of the world- whence a present

improvement on SAAC compared to a past commonly afflicted with it. Amongst denials,

complicit atonements or normalisation of paedophilia; concerns might in fact arise from an

otherwise desolate land. Even though results from representative samples of populations are

more than disturbing, no appropriate sets of actions are taken matching it. Is the production of

data working at all? Is a real dissemination of the information taking place? Research cannot work

alone, but on top of their practical limitations, they are not conceptually either resulting or

focusing on the eradication of these networks or on pro-active, active and widespread

prevention, if research questions are more on the nature of the crimes rather than on how to

put an end to them. When the eradication of sexual abuses, its stages, efforts, failures, and

successes have not been the intense object of queries, studies then would become the

repository of the determinative enclosure of those violations to the few victims cared for and

to the criminals caught up occasionally and released so distraughtly too soon (Kelly et al,

1995) (Galiana, 2012), escaping any suitable length of punishment, so much so that their

inculpation could end up being the attestation, and the public the witness of these harassing

crimes not being under threat, almost even to the slightest.

  1. b) Data collection

Findings will typically leave some regions and languages under-scrutinised (Lalor, 2003). In

addition, ‘different adoptions of definitions by regional or static organisations make data

comparison and research as a whole extremely difficult’ (Dottridge, 2008, p.50). More

recently, a briefing paper for the 2ndWorld Congress against CSEC (commercial sexual


exploitation of children) reported the difficulty for quantification particularly in zones such as

the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (Lalor, 2003). But these barriers to quantification do not

prevent the problems to be felt as existing extensively (Lalor, 2003). Searchers do not need

surveys, statistics or professionally tightly gathered data with the help of the government to

try to figure out the extent of sexual abuses against children. In the sub-Sahara regions for

example, where the subject is openly, willingly undiscussed (Lalor, 2003), ‘commercial

sexual exploitations’ of children in the region continue to be extensive (Lalor, 2003). This

perception in this case comes from the ‘amount of anecdotal evidence’ (Lalor, 2003), that are

more intuitive or deductive assessment than statistics can be. Since sexual abuse goes

unreported (Whitaker et al., 2008), surveys could play a special role, as a tool permitting to

initiate late disclosure, or bringing awareness to the existence, the reality of what occurs.

Finally, enquiries or any investigations related to the victims has to answer concerns over the

victims’ safety (Willis, 2002) through specific ethical procedures. The victims’ safety is

given the possible degree of violence, gravity and barbary of the offences is more than a very

serious prerequisite for the research implications, but also may have people doubtful on how

much experts have been in a real, and pragmatic manner fighting abuses- what are research

made with? Proper independent investigations seem to be unlikely without very strong

security enforced by the states themselves. Once rescued or sheltered, even then, while

thematically, psychology might be felt to be dominant over other fields of study (compared to

political sciences or social sciences), if there are many reviews on the impact of sexual

abusesl, there is much less said about how to reduce the consequences of these traumas (Fong

and Berger, 2010) still affecting the victims. At some point the accounts of the victims’

ordeals might stand for being the vestiges of the rescue process of one individual only (‘lucky

enough’ to have been dealt with)- since the vast majority have not been detected and have no

hope to be.


  1. c) Aggregation of data

Amalgam in research comes under the shape of data aggregation. However, how many more

specialists have been put on the task, we know that results are impaired by groupings that

may not differentiate adults from children (Broughton, 2009).

Countries, such as the Republic of Benin, which have incorporated the concept of

‘worst forms of child labour’ into their legislation about human trafficking

(Dottridge, 2008, p.8)

The data emerging from research are so agglomerated that one cannot always differentiate

people suffering from domestic violence, poverty, lack of education and when having

determinate that people suffer from trafficking, the data cannot specify whether the

trafficking was work exploitation such as child and force labour or trafficking related to

sexual exploitation (Dottridge, 2008). Some others discard the enquiry on sexual abuses

altogether, and instead will list it under ‘physical forms of child abuse such as excessive

corporal punishment, infanticide, and female circumcision’ (Lalor, 2003, p.443). The

resulting vagueness and approximation of information could be at the sources of

impoverished, in fact misleading, almost senseless, perhaps demeaning views- creating more

confusion or obscuring the truth about the suffering and harm taking place. The practical

reasons for the origins of those entangled pictures of real situations are that a crime is in

general followed by other crimes- whence this accumulation. Also the multiplicity of the

assaults experienced is one of the main factors rendering people less and less apt at fighting

back and at appearing in any surveys anyhow (because of the possible many and repeated


traumas and tortures of various nature made by the perpetrators purposefully). The

complexity and the extreme cruelty of what the victim has endured might mean that someone

may be on statistics when she is a woman, though having been a victim since she was a child;

she might suffer from drugs abuses, prostitution, mental health, and illnesses related diseases

(Whitaker et al., 2008). She might be exploited as a worker, and also abused and used

sexually. She might be the object of trade, and be on record for poverty (Whitaker et al.,


Yet again, it demonstrates of an amalgamation of ideas and data, but this could hide another

reality, that these violations such as sexual violence are not singularised and therefore are not

more targeted and punished than other type of abuses, less significantly ‘destroying, or

stealing’ the lives of the ‘imprisoned’ victims. This could be signs of an agenda of levelling

down of the penalties as to not being able to punish any crimes efficiently, in a society that

had reverted to secrecy and not telling anything to the authorities out of fear of being

sanctioned by abhorrent laws unable to set appropriate and proportionate responses to crimesthat

is to sentence petty larceny and crimes of this level of infamy with same penalties. This

absence might also come from it to be less provable, as crimes might be conducted with more

discretion, secrecy, and that pedophilia is a subject of great ‘shame’li, astonishingly for the

victims, and stigmatisationlii. Sadly, professionals here to help might also be in no position to

further assistance in front of victims so afraid and ‘brain-washed’ that they will refuse the

help given. Help might turn to be too sporadic and hesitant, with the child and professionals’

situations being too at little protected, or in too feeble situations to rally the resources

necessary to be safe from the abusers, the networks of abusers or incompetent civil servants,

police, social services or NGOs’ staffs. Societies permitting sexual abuses are clearly a threat

to the individuals interacting within or with them (Brabant, 2011) (Orchard, 2007). If one

individual was victim of paedophilia it would not be a lesser problem, but the numbers of


children violated instead of being the result of isolation are the result of rejection, and render

less and less impossible hope for interventions, changes, preventions, and even education.

  1. d) Misappropriation of the language by professionals

All the way, reports mention such things as ‘labour and smuggling’’ instead of ‘trafficking’,

‘child prostitution’, ‘sex industry’ and so forth. To talk about prostitution instead of horrific

crimes and the punishment that are linked to them, will with certainty impact on how these

issues are considered, tackled or ignored. Prostitution should have been reworded to phrases

conveying how children have been traded and sexually raped, neutralised, harmed and

tortured against money. The same applies with children called prostitutes but not trafficked,

enslaved children by the sex trades. Alongside it people tend to use vocabulary from a milieu

that endorses sexual abuse against children. It is not even about the percentage of

professionals using these terms instead of words reflecting the crimes they attempt to

designate. It is no longer the question, this paper uses these erroneous terms similarly since a

lack of reformulation rules over the impossibility of naming those abuses otherwise.

Professionals use the ‘new wave’ name depicting what have been defended as being ‘sex

work’ for adults, and from there, one will define victims as being within (or rather belonging

  1. to) the ‘sex industry’ (Broughton, 2009, p.2). The ‘sex industry’, as it is erroneously called,

using children as victims, is expending. Left indefinitely like this and the by default

classifications, academic quotes and phrases would then legitimate it as being a business

rather than a crime industry of the most horrendous (if not so vilified) and punishable type of



The number of children involved in national and international sex industry

(Broughton, 2009, p.2)

as it is inappropriately and shamelessly called

  1. e) Rehabilitation, resocializationliii?

”13 Article 9.3 of the Optional Protocol requires States Parties to “take all feasible

measures” to ensure all appropriate assistance to children who are victims of offences

mentioned in the Protocol, “including their full social reintegration and their full

physical and psychological recovery” (Broughton, 2009, p.12).

It is true that aiming at full inclusion, and full protection is essential and has by any means to

be reminded and observed. Though this kind of formulation also infers that these same

professionals do not know what they specialise in. They are the signs of a too easy,

permissive, self-uncritical, satisfied jargon typifying once again that the burden is put on the

child (Purvis and Ward, 2006) to fully recovered from what may be nearly impossible to. In

that case pathologies could be treated as not normal and be punished as particularities, and

symptoms or signs (type of resilience or healing processes that will be discounted, ignored or

unexamined) could then be perceived as backwards or as inner deficiencies. It is also

forgetting or erasing the ongoing realities of people having been or being harassed, and

victimised. It pronounces the abuses as mendable, just a blip in the course of one’s life- it is

trivialising it. Even though people jargon about sexual exploitation on children, they routinely

used economic terms just like ‘rehabilitating’ them into general trading, and where even

there, growth is ‘attained’. ‘Full reintegration’ resounds as the pride of a social system that


simultaneously ‘allows’ that to remains well-known and left aside perpetrations,

promulgating or providing at last, the perspective of being integrated to the system: as a

reward, a final and late join-in.

  1. f) Too little is conscientiously done

Research should demonstrate very detailed ways of fighting networks, now not one example

is to be found. This would be possible while respecting privacy data and other sensitive

information but the supposition is that the police or social services doing investigations,

preventions schemes, or of detection, are not really researched by independent boards,

assessing and evaluation information and procedures, and also keeping the work of the state

and civil societies, and of diverse agencies in check- with the enhanced possibility for

coordination, or self-awareness. Here again a culture of secrecy harms professionals and

public with censorship on information, there is no tracking down even towards the

institutions who are supposed to protect population. That work frame impediments

transparency, and obligation to results.

Endnote on methodology: liv


Vulnerability, candour, ignorance, inexperience, the need for help with self-development and

education- the inevitable dependence of children or teenagers upon maturity and adulthood

are of course key elements at making the enslavement of children easier. Perpetrators are also

using and exploiting poverty, as well as employing deception, while the victims tend to come


predominantly from parents or communities themselves undergoing precariousness, or from

families of perpetrators. When it comes to the types of abuses, the statistics available tend to

not differentiate between them. Many reports translate into agglomerated data not

distinguishing between physical abuses and sexual abuses. Whereas agglomerated data blur

assessment accuracy and reliability, often children sexually molested suffer from many other

abuses. Though a lot of research has been carried out on traumas, writers denounce a lack of

literature around how to treat the victims towards better recovery; this also reflects the lack of

social and legal measures ending the victims’ isolations and sufferings.

Abuses reflect also how criminals organize sexual tortures and other excruciations as sexual

tortures generally imply innumerable forms of deprivations and agony, compiled in order to

maintain the victims in states of complete coercion and imprisonment, be they physical,

mental, financial or social. While labour exploitation could be compensable, sexual

exploitation is not, as it leaves unhealable physical, psychological and mental injuries. It

involves successions of manipulative onslaughts achieving the objectives of stifling, stealing

lives’ skills, or any possibility of even living. Chapter two has at its core the main causes of

low rates of convictions. These are proven records of inappropriate legislation, defective

enforcement or even complaisant police or magistrates. These deficiencies show a practically

de-facto tolerated pornography, rife on the internet that has become a venue for abusers,

strengthened networks, and participated in ‘legitimising’ the occurrences and recurrences of


Agonisingly, under-aged individuals may be harassed for ‘prostitution’ related offenses such

as solicitation or incitation instead of being taken care of. Judges might protect pedophiles

associations and activities or literature under ‘freedom of expression’ regulations. The

children, not only the victims of organized crimes sometimes of international scale, will be

the victims, and the admonishment-bearers of police itself. Police and the judicial systems


proven to be criminalizing children and teenagers as if they were part of or responsible for

associated crimes, is the ultimate betrayal, stigmatisation and denial by the only or at least the

unavoidable place where one should be given and be able to ask for protection- more than

that they are openly complicit in acts of terror. Between people pushing for predations to be

accepted and the reprobation of victims, one could draw a parallel with what happens with

prostitution, and how it could be used for sexual abuses against children (SAAC). The

criminalization of prostitution spurred on the movement for the legalisation of prostitution,

because officials do not help people victims of prostitution but in fact further harm them.

Chapter II and III converge in reviewing the lack of coordination and cooperation between

international and national legislative departments, policies and agencies, and the openly

disengaged judicial prosecution and punishment systems, supported by a culture of secrecy or

of toleration that validates abuses.

Chapter III addresses the larger communities’ reactions or roles. Rare peak viewing time

programs about pockets of child sexual trade operate unhidden serve as indicators of how the

rest of the society is ‘tolerant’ ‘or blinkered’. The subsequent but not subsidiary question is

by whom the abuses are perpetrated, condone, downplayed, normalised or ignored. What has

started to be demonstrated is the way these crimes perdure, and this tacitly because of the

mainstream systems’ inability, the systems of the majority, and therefore everybody’s failure,

at fighting back. Within that account, the question still not quite answered in the literature or

in this dissertation, is how much vulnerable society itself may be (and how come it is) to let

itself and the children it is supposed to protect be violated in such horrific ways. Half of the

answer lies in the rate and frequency SAAC are committed, in places including family,

schools, and social services. Economic, social and cultural changes may be accused of many

an evil while cultures or the patterns within which people insist on hiding behind the

protection of amorality they benefit from, are at the origins of a system tolerating, even


pushing for abuses to happen. The depiction of pasts or places rid with paedophilia is often

use for ideological reasons, or for nostalgia to help getting away from present responsibilities;

if not for openly adulating situations that were more prone to incest and explicit enslavement.

The traditional argument is an epitome of how cultures use social reproduction in order to be

conduct atrocities they do not combat or acknowledge.

Advances in technologies that are made in favour of criminal rings and that are not matched

up by police or legislation, and social fractures not social changes, have facilitated people

exploitation of one another. To talk about changes for the worst being responsible is also true,

what does not change however is that whenever societies permit the fragilization of

individuals, then plights often extensionally growing onto the vulnerabilised individual loom

and hit. Chapter IV acknowledges the building-up of conventions and programs of

intervention. At the international level, professionals are still tied and in many ways defeated

by a lack of data at the national level. The lack of will or of means will logically impair or

render impossible worldwide data collection, and coherent, coercive actions. As for the

NGOs’ input, though indispensable, a trend in correlation with lesser sentencing, their

programs tend to focus on how warning parents and children (though parents may often be

made powerless or the direct/indirect reasons or the facilitators of the abuses) or

psychologizing the situations of the abusers or victims alike without aiming enough at

tackling causes external to the immediate children’ s environment such as targeting networks,

or solving the debilitating results often yielded by police, social services, and all other

specialised agencies failing their duties. Perhaps though hopes might lie in better efficiency in

coordination, cooperation, prevention, protection and recovery schemes, all of which are in

place already.


Health reasons has been given as the redundant reasons for countering paedophilia, not the

necessary attacks on predators. Justifying the crack down on SAAC this way is to assist to a

diminished argument of justifications and morals between people who fight paedophilia and

those who would like to see it legalised. To have to argue this way is the proof that

combating the rape of children is not to be taken for granted but has to be positively and

strictly protected), as people winning over the possibility of the laws becoming even more lax

on these crimes against humanity could in fact be imminent.

Facing an overwhelming numbers of unresolved cases, politicians also could be prone to have

recourse to sporadic means of tortures, like castration, or the stereotyping of perpetrators in

launching homophobic campaigns advocated within societies that back pornography the rest

of the time.

That the amounts of academic inputs have risen is only normal, and go with increasing

interest for social sciences in general. Poor quality has shown through reiterated

classifications or disqualifications of aggregated data, of which amongst many others, is data

being about adults instead of being about children – or of surveys not distinguishing between

the two. Data and information collection at times are so extremely vague that it suggests a

taboo strongly influencing professionals and researchers. Furthermore, very serious questions

about definitions or wording are present through core texts. Severe lexical malapropisms such

as disserting about ‘the prostitution of children’ rather than sexual atrocities and

sequestration, and repeated, organized, institutionalized serial rapes, or about an industry of

sex rather than designating it as criminal coalitions conducting the perpetrations of those

atrocities. Offenses that with not doubt when organised or the subject of re-offending belong

to crimes against humanity

However, one will have to interrogate themselves on whether this is a predicament due to

language limitations or not. Academics and professionals in many papers and lectures or


interviews, and in fact purely academic ones, that have for responsibilities to establish

communication, public relations, and a common and shared vocabulary, cannot misuse words

by mistake on a regular basis. The role of scholars is to understand and use words in an

appropriate manner as they convey directly or indirectly the frame of meaning in which the

more official side of society will be able to communicate, legitimizing unfit vocabulary can

only be the officialisation of atrocities into trade or into normativity (reflecting or following

decriminalization). People’s and above all academics’ inadequate lexicon could be nothing

but still slightly hidden political statements about their approvals or not entire disapprovals of

‘prostitution’ and the violation of children’s entire lives. If children are said to be easy to

manipulate, then how should we qualify or interpret these words, the keys of understandings,

of premises, the leading and asserting powers they have on people?

While erroneous words are used, the same impasses are met when writing; more appropriate

words are just not there. Similarly, it is when trying to avoid repetitions that one has to come

to the conclusion that crimes with such implications do not have synonyms. Then tortures,

abuses, crimes, agony, excruciations, are in use permanently and at all time one must come to

the admission that even the strongest words cannot but abysmally minimize the truth. In this

field, one found themselves, in a continuous manner at a loss for designations, real

descriptive or prescriptive phrases or expressions. When looking for synonyms of victims, the

dozens supposed to be the closest to the term “victim” ’s are derogatory and colloquial.

Names such as ‘scapegoat’, legal or insurance vocabulary such as ‘party’, or ‘casualty’ that

stop conveying the nature of the attack, and therefore the culpability. Lack of preventive and

punitive actions, lack in data and access bringing awareness and enabling criticism of how

seriously and effectively or not SAAC are stopped by the authorities just shows how the

overall mechanism is unsuccessful in treating it as a national concern. Parallel to SAAC, two

huge reasons for it being unsuccessfully tackled is prostitution as a whole and unemployment.


They are of great concerns since the need for cash will allow perpetrations to go on. In

contrast with the sizeable on air time or items anwering to worries about how to perfect

childhood and all other periods of life’s wellbeing in these parts of the society free from the

fear of trafficking, many other discussions thrive on how to secure future ‘sex workers’.

Could society be the victim or culprit of some kind of militantism in prostitution politic? As

succinctly demonstrated, the importance of prostitution here is creeping in again, because

those destructive, violently, intrinsically harming crimes against children are how criminal

rings secure future ‘sex workers’ or the future of sex work. Abated through legislation,

media, inertia, SAAC are a societal product, and must be resolved by society. Now SAAC are

also the effects of unemployment and the glorification of financial gains by any means or

whenever one does not have to justify the way money is exchanged. That SAAC do not urge

proactive reactions resulting in program able to reach every child is or the sign of the

institutions being cynically drafted or drawing onto arguments of debilitative fatality, or the

sign of social and political subservience to SAAC.

The conclusive comment is how little is done, and contrarily to how serious the propagation

or at least the consolidation of the problems is, through technical means and more and more

complex networks and associations, of what cannot be more heinous types of crimes. A

consensus of ‘that should never happen again’ has been issued on persecutions such as

genocides. Remembrances days and regular campaigns have triggered awareness of these

horrors of the past and modern history as a warning against present ones. Martyrizing

children (besides genocide other important criteria: its being the result of mass violence)-

should be treated, as far as organised crimes and recidivism are concerned, as genocide legal

equivalent, prosecuted and punished like any gross crimes against humanity. All SAAC

obviously cannot be treated the same, according to gravity, age of the criminals, nature of the

attack and moreover by the very possible lack of awareness doubled by incentives of the


sexualisation of relationships potentially playing an important role in the attacks or sexual

acts, i.e., people guilty of SAAC out of ignorance or immaturity rather than intent to destroy.

On a whole, as a defence against legislative ambiguity or defection, a duty of proportionality,

reciprocity and balance prevails, leading to call into question how has been made possible

that daily rapes and molestations, the sexual exploitations of children- without forgetting

those of adults- are not regarded and sanctioned just as any other genocide attempt would be?


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i Associations, laws, judiciary, executive, civil servants, and civil society.

ii the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime 2000, and in Article

4 of the Council of Europe Convention on action against Trafficking in Human Beings 2005:

“Trafficking in persons” shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer,

harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms

of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a


position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to

achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose

of exploitation (O Briain, 2006, p.22).


Many of the girls forced into prostitution in Atlanta were kidnapped or lured from

public places, such as movie theaters, schools, bus stops and shopping malls. After

years of victimization, many of these girls looked similar to child prostitutes from

abusive backgrounds despite their circumstances and different means of entry into

prostitution. (Fong and Berger, 2010, p.313).

iv The millions of victims go in stark contrast with the low figures of indictment or victims’

protections issues by Interpol or other police. Despite explanation or rather watering down

factors such as growing population, more powerful tool of ‘distribution’ and of unsupervised

or clandestine networking; or more positively that actual abuses are not hidden by child

marriage, the complete absence of criminalisation, of reporting or of prosecutions, we assist

to a growing strength and impunity facing an often disempowered, distanciated or disengaged

public, politic and legal opinions or mechanisms.

v From an attempt at mapping the general literature about the fight against paedophilia, a

feeling of almost vacuum or desertion might arise. Come up various, but not numerous,

articles about a few mediatised stories, depicting the horrors lived or live by one, not by the

hundreds of thousands current victims left aside. Also to test academics’ works against the

more populist viewpoint and actions led publically through media, or information programs

aiming at the general population or addresses to professionals such as social workers,

teachers, or within the tourist industry is not really possible due to the, what could be named,

a taboo stance, a culture of secrecy only rivalling or mirroring by the culture of secrecy of

criminality, or sectarian obscurantism on the subject.

Paucity of data could or in fact more than data but investigat ions and follow-up might

also be due to low level of disclosure. In searching a topic, one has always has to

interrogate the present debate and information. When individual analyses mostly in the field

of psychology resorting on the plight of a little number of victims, the paucity of all of the

latter might come from the primary lack or opacity of information or investigations. In turn,

blatant vacuum might come from the disequilibrium of power the subject touches on. The

victims are caught between the grey area of familial and private doing, easily manipulated by

abusers forcing people into ignorance, doubt and silence, between a judiciary system

notoriously failing their duty, and traumatic events that may have impaired the victims

cognitively, and a mid-lawful mid-criminal mafia making billions of dollars through the

exploitation of sexual predation and depravation – a consumption of sex supported by and

supporting violence, abuses, staging rapes and entrapment, exploiting people made

vulnerable, and poverty, altogether aiming at them becoming what will be then appreciated

and justified as being common and normalised.


If literature sometimes suggests or an increased number of research or the too little quality of

them due to lack of funding, lack of coordination or just political, judicial competency or

will; the overall acknowledgment is that even though, there might be a growing concern for

sexual exploitation, and sexual abusers preying on underage children, it is nearly not as much

as the echo of decupling actual means for trade and spread of such paedophilic

marketization’. Every one attests of this: through internet and the coordinated

internationalisation of criminality, networks keep on developing. Those criminals are not

caught. It is due by the lack of cooperation between different national or regional polices,

states, policy-makers and also by the weakness or evasiveness of certain policies while others

are openly lenient, and damaging to the children victims of these horrific crimes. Internet

stands as an ever extensionally decupling means of sharing incredible amounts of

information, at a very fast speed, and at no cost. Vastly unregulated criminals of such grave

and pervert, sadistic activities such as paedophilia remain quasi-unworried, as websites and

forums will stay unanimous, and anyhow not investigated. Protocols such as the internet

service providers deciding to close paedophilic or other forums, without even to have a duty

to call the police, therefore precluding the police in turn from exerting its duty to investigate

it, tied with a duty to perform in a proactive and professional way.

vi Here lack of information is definitively an issue for a person that think they are legally

being left at the hands of the perpetrators, or legally detained or abused, but information still

is likely not to be enough without authorities’ protection of victims. Even when it is there, the

nature of being children render the victims so dependent of their abusers that to know about

the crimes if prevention is not done actively would equate to just wait for the victims to turn

up by themselves, and to be immune to the glooming perspective of becoming a victim when

in care via the social services.

Since families are the primary barriers to abuse or the ones that may convey it, and the first

environment in which a child is raised; unfortunately, solutions to abuses or at least to

patterns that would lead a child to being exploited in the future are difficult to put in place.

As we will see later in this dissertation, education within the communities and actions

forbidding children prostitution and prostitution at large, together with real job opportunities

for everyone underlined how structural, comprehensive and global, solutions have to be.

vii Most victims of international trafficking come from Southeast Asia, Latin America,

Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States and the average age of child victims of

trafficking is about 13 or 14 (Barnitz, 2001; Boxill & Richardson, 2007). Although

the trafficking of boys for commercial sexual purposes is typically unreported, the

International Labor Organization (ILO) and UNICEF estimate that 2% of all

commercial sexual exploitation is with boys (U.S. Department of State, 2008 in

Broughton, 2009, p.39).

viii Broughton goes on specifying that trafficking of persons occurs also domestically and

vulnerable childrenviii within the United States are at-risk of sexual exploitation (Broughton,



ix A growing number of American children are trafficked into the national and international

sex industry (Fong and Berger, 2010).


At the family levelx: Low level of education in the family, sexual abuse within the

family, lack of family support within the educational system, substance

abuse/addiction/alcoholism, history of abuse and violence within the family, lack of

communication between parents and children, absence of parental support (O Briain,

2006, p.4).

including subcategories of Childhood Abuse, Poor Parenting Practices, Parental

Instability, and Parental Loss. (Whitaker et al., 2008, p.535).

When trying to established a profile of the children the most at risks most of their

vulnerability comes from family themselves being perpetrators, by letting perpetrators

abusing them or by not being able to protect them (in case when family or communities are

the targets themselves). Though this account of the situations does not help solving what will

appear to be caught in vicious cycles. Moreover, it dismisses how much the environment, as

in the society and not the family, are letting people suffering just because laws do not reach

the ones that are hidden, the ones without resources, and in case of children the ones that do

not have knowledge enough because of not being exposed to legal and societal system and to

what society should provide as safety nets in order for familial and private abuses to not go


xi Although child prostitution is often associated with international trafficking, Estes and

Weiner (2002) showed that this is only one aspect of child prostitution. Estes and Weiner

(2002) suggest that as many as 244,000 American youth are at-risk of commercial

sexual exploitation each year (Broughton, 2009).


Commercialised or not.

This could constitute one of the causes or consequences why no real attempt at educating

children against sexual abuses do not occur at school. As a displacement of the taboos when

it is dealt with, whereas it has been proven, even despite the fact that main campaigns put

forward the evidence that most predators are known to the direct surrounding of the victims

and not caused predominantly by people strangers to the child.

Of course, focusing on trafficking is crucial but as in reproduction and production, as long as

criminal networks are not as powerful as to kidnap and detain their victims, many of the

children and of the adults victimised this way have been victims from their earlier age within

their familial or community environment. Not tackling private or familial issues are an old by

default judicial and political stances that lead to the impossibility of look into what

communities as a whole do. Yet again the fact that situations are not defined properly could


lead to the system being unprepared vis a vis intervention. However, that commercial sexual

exploitations are neglected is also a valid comment. The focus is on the sexual abuse of

children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation

of children (Lalor, 2003, p.460).

Maybe then when it comes to intervention as news about rigs dismantlement is very few

apart, also through lack of testimony.

xiii crimes knowns to bring money, and whose trade is to inspire a daily terror enabling the

trauma and tetanise people thorough their lives.

xiv Child marriage, paedophiles networking, be them informal, official or the outcome of total

abandonment to what is done within families or within mafia or criminal circles are certainly

the main components attached to this effect.

xv The Supreme Court has had trouble drawing a line between legal and obscene sexual

images. Some judges, like Black and Douglas, argued that the First Amendment protected all

speech, including sexual speech and images arguing that the legislature, not the Court, should

draw the line between (Schlebaum, 1992, p.916).


xvii Boxill and Richardson (2007) found that these children were frequently involved in

the juvenile justice system and their behavior criminalized. As a result, their

abductions and long histories of physical and sexual abuse were ignored (Fong and

Berger, 2010, p.315)

xviii Tate admits to “genuine fury at the bland complacency of lawyers, judges, and law

makers,” who persistently choose to misunderstand, disbelieve or reject evidence

(Schlebaum, 1992).

xix Capture how children are found and placed within societal circles seemingly seamed by

the very authority of citizens’ everyday security and justice.

xx Girl C said her adoptive mother went to social services in 2004 to beg

for help. She said: “Mum wrote to all the key people in social services,

called her own case conferences, invited agencies and got them sitting

around the table, but they just passed the parcel between them – and all

the while, I was getting increasingly under the power and influence of the

gang.” (The guardian, 2013, p.1).

Two years later council agreed to put the girl in a temporary care home, but by then

Girl C said: “It was too late: the grooming process had run its course. I was

completely under their [the gang’s] control.” (The guardian, 2013, p.1).


Shortly after she was trafficked from Oxford to London for the first time, Girl C said,

she had tried to talk to staff at the care home but was told the conversation was

“inappropriate” (The guardian, 2013, p.1).

xxi A question on wording remain, on how victims may be able to understand how to report it.

To this effect, and the one of prevention, and also the ones of making sure that offenders

associate pedophilia as a crime and not be themselves victims of immature judgments or be

influenced by pervasive tendentious societal attitudes.

xxii Would it be due to a changing society losing some of its humane values or economic or

social stability or the growing concern and will of starting tackling or at least addressing the

problem or even the fact that paedophilia cannot be hidden any longer within families’

system such as when the children are in total dependence of adults or families or when facing

a reluctant police or states.

xxiii The UNICEF report found that 120 million girls and women under 20 had endured forced

sexual acts, with such experiences especially common in some developing countries – about

70% of girls suffer sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Equatorial

Guinea – and an estimated 50% in Uganda, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, UNICEF said (Walker,

2014, p.1).

xxiv A UNICEF report published this week details the plight of more than 500 sexually

exploited children and a flourishing sex trade serving mainly German paedophiles and “sex

tourists” (Schlagenhauf, 2005, p.1).


children are picked up at petrol stations, supermarkets, bus stations, and lay-bys by male,

often middle-class, Germans (Schlagenhauf, 2005, p.3).

The clients are paedophiles or sex tourists who drive to the Czech–German border

specifically for child sex, attractive because of the reduced risk of “AIDS and other diseases”,

she said (Schlagenhauf, 2005, p.3).

xxv Amongst the Gusii people, crimes are perpetrated particularly by ‘classificatory fathers of

their victims (i.e., they are closely related members of their victims’ parents’ generation’) or

‘rape of prepubescent girls by adult men or actual father-daughter incest’ (Lalor, 2003, p


xxvi In as far as hidden or inclusive sexual perpetrations are concerned, from castes, to

criminal rings, to child marriage, or dire poverty and unemployment, and lack of resources

where peer pressures towards degradation is more certain to take place, another confusion

might run its course. The inducing of amalgams with consent or nature or functions where the

society is so corrupted that duress or physical coercion is induced in and within the whole

system. Where people do not hold any power and rights to their own person and in equality to


others, and in which subjugation is sustained with mental and psychological brain-washing, a

culture of silence and a culture in fact a community all pressurising or letting people

enslaving and torturing children. A system of exclusion and seclusion practicing disablement

via social circles.


Human traffickers operate in circumstances where there are large

numbers of people who are desperate for a better life, because of poverty,

or lack of real opportunities, or because of personal difficulties, and when

there is a demand for their labour or services in another place. Much of

the ‘demand’ is for sexual services. (O Briain, 2006, p.6)

xxviii In any cases, all of these characteristics are but derivatives of societal constructions that a

society looking for signs of possible enslavement would like to imagine as being the best way

to suit all parasite-like stances they could then impose.

xxix Only one story one at a time, impeach the bigger picture to emerge, result maybe of what

cannot be investigated, journalists cannot hold only on witnesses but would have to process

onto the gathering of other types of evidence.

xxx From the diverse scandals in rich countries involving rich individuals, to the 2015

grooming scandals in the UK, to the USA very high rates of child ‘prostitution’ and marriage,

to countries like Cambodia, Thailand and the Philippines or specific towns in eastern Europe

or Africa, the targets of ‘sex tourism’ profiteering from what society as a whole proves itself

to incompetent to authoritatively stop.

The great advantage of the images is that they prove how journalists, infiltrate or follow

networks of paedophiles, without any problems, in an often completely open-air places where

the ‘sales’ of children for sexual abuses take place daily. These reporting though not

academics by nature just demonstrate how police, justice, law and human decency has then

disappeared from the very society ruling them.

xxxi Also what if the state is unable to raise or help children, such as with the Saville scandals,

or the scandals that go on and on but quietly in care industry = whatever privatised or not or

‘agencised’= the state care system leading children to prostitution or condemned life barred

with education.

Poverty that makes everyone in situation of vulnerability (Whitaker et al., 2008).

xxxii When no valid reason is given it has the potentiality or role of a statement, fabricating

myths of arranged and forced marriage, child marriage and what will be called ‘prostitution’

of underage girls and boys -maybe located in neighbour places that the one discussed- and in

unreported situations, where all people are foreign and strangers, where investigating one’s

clans would rhyme with banishment.


xxxiii Hidden as well through forced and arranged marriage or ‘simply’ by ‘officialised’ or

totally despised ‘adult prostitution, which just up to now, is not fought or is not viewed as

prostitution with sexual horrendous crimes against minors, but just as prostitution whatever

the setting, degree of abuses, enslavement, coercion, dependence, autonomy, and age of the



In a sense, excluded from the radical feminist approach to intervention means that the

focus is shifted from men who sexually abuse are not outside society but neither are

they wholly reducible to it. They are neither totally powerful, nor the victims of forces

beyond their control (Purvis and Ward, 2006, p.303).

Sexual practices serve to create and maintain power relations between men and

between men and being: sexually in charge, dominant, sexually successful, detached

and self-focused, predatory, conquest-like, phallocentric, secretive, and immoral,

whilst minimizing sexual inadequacy (Purvis and Ward, 2006, p.303).

For some men, therefore, sexual practices such as sexual behavior with a child may

be a key experience through which power is derived and masculinity is accomplished

(Purvis and Ward, 2006, p.307).

Such as the inevitability of heterosexuality. Trained to appear heterosexual or not

homosexual, will justify any sexualised behaviour, forced sexualisation role or enrolment

(allegiance, mimic, imitation) of the relation.

Furthermore, the emphasis on children’s obedience to adults and male supremacy over

females allow men to yield a double authority over girls (Lalor, 2003).


Internet is the ‘absolute best hunting ground (for a) pedophile’. It is “the most

efficient pornography distribution engine ever conceived.” Child pornography is

particularly rampant on the Internet because pedophiles can transmit and download

illegal pictures anonymously (Esposito, 1998, p.3).

xxxvi Like for other types of campaigns aimed at redressing tort or addressing government or

populations even with endemic and serious topics, energy and information often get lost on

the way.

xxxvii We also have seen that added to the confusion on how to define and target precisely

those abuses, the sense of their being particularly horrendous, and the sense of its gravity, and

with it the appropriateness of sanctions and the emergency of such situations, have affected

the cohesion and coherence of actions at the same time as leaving people in inaction or

without the necessary tools.


xxxviii: Media though have an effect on this issue, one it may render the issue unrealistic, from

the virtual domains, just like pornography or suggestive images within mainstream mass

media features younger and younger people, by process of infantilisation and others. It also

makes the ‘trade’ of paedophiliac literature, image, depiction or actual acts, its proliferation.


Another 6-year-old boy was able to tell his mother of sexual abuse by his

older cousin after his sister, mother, and he had watched a television

program about paedophiles (Jensen et al., 2005, p.1408).

xl In any account how can we count on disclosure of the worst evil, while professionals of the

mainstream society are all around facilitating it to appear cleaner. The most horrendous on

that account is the sizeable amount of academics and social workers of all types openly for

prostitution and supporting it.

The reason to counter pedophilia for the sake of society, productivity and health and not to

free individuals from torture and enslavement, brought up the questions on the debates

themselves- open towards a mean to what end?

xli Vulnerability is a key word. But instead of being the vulnerability of the victims only,

‘vulnerability’ of community and even of the society and its guards, such as policies, polices,

legal system and the social services are here implicated. Or else how can one explain such

results. When not complicit, it takes to be endangered, or to be too weak to be able to react

against, to account for the amount of inaction or inappropriate measures taken, letting what is

called the sex industry to its atrocities.

xlii potentially dangerous a cohort of psychologists and social workers, liable to subjectivities,

salaries pressures, judgmental attitudes, social services eager to create jobs, normative

pressures, neglect, misinformation, tight time-management, and much more given that the

notorious use of the system psychologists put into place obeying pharmaceutical priorities on

one hand and possibly be a tool of political coercion on the other hand could be when starting

to be invasive and judgemental of situations that may be too complex and intricate to gather

without a much more profound work that the one operating.

xliii Destroy lives in turn, as the same mentality that permits children to be sexually abused or

enslaved, would permit the notion of paedophilia to help them with destroying the lives of

those falsely accused with it- that clearly deserves worst term of imprisonment and

disqualified sanity, and responsibility (could affect right to vote, obviously to certain

professions, and in fact affect people action and interaction within society). When in fact in

turn people would be held at gunpoint with such accusations, ironically orchestrated by the

actual abusers themselves, as well as how adults/children relationship could be affected in the


distanciation people would have to take facing a suspicion or rather frantic control done out

of hysteria or power abuses).

xliv It is when one could suspect that sentences are equal to rapes against adults but not on

rapes against children, of rapes, often when rapes on adults are themselves trivialised, even

though both should be treated as egregious crimes. All the same, rapes against children has

something the society cannot prevent without the most drastic imprisonment- for recidivists.

xlv All very conscious fake attacks usually by persons agreeing with other types of abuses, but

frightening enough for people to revert into all kind of silencing.

xlvi This is a very delicate matter, as long as psychological, and mental abuses are concerned.

But having stating that we have to admit that a place for all family giving safe shelter, and for

all children, a place of education, equity and security is not always available at all, and this is

the bigger issues of children that finally are abused with so much ease, because of the

children being removed from society. This is thus a societal problem concerning politics and

class, and the educational system, that are all at the very heart of the construction of societies

and communities.

xlvii The gathering of thousands of indecent assault on children on each computer (BBC,

2002) gives an idea on how widespread commercial abuses is.

xlviii Growing number of victims. This phrase is certainly the most shocking and widespread

in the literature on present sexual abuses on children. While the number of crimes reported,

noticed and dealt with is on the rise, one also can suppose that the number of the known or

suspected victims is up because concern itself and world population are increasing, and not

due to a level of abuse that is getting worse compared to past situations when cultures of

secrecy and tabooisation have stifled the discussions or condemnations around them, and

normalised these horrendous perpetrations altogether. Also the now possible or permissible

expression, reporting and criminalisation contribute to a swell in statistics about the numbers

of victims, but might be a positive outcome as before solicitude could not have been

expressed. If a better awareness of the extent of child sexual abuses occur, then a better

defence ought to follow.

xlix ‘The United States are higher than international estimates of abuse. In North America

several studies show that 30–40% of female children and 13% of male children experience

sexual abuse (Bolen& Scannapieco, 1999; Briere & Elliott, 2003; Corcoran & Pillai,2008 in

Fong and Berger, 2010)

l If the literature on the subject is very interesting and the object of vast academic study, at

times the account of actions may be suggesting inertia or data duplication. Redundancy of

data, and scenarios, same descriptions, sometimes not really needed from official reports of


papers (UNICEF Pacific, 2006), make the reader wonder whether people end up reading the

same classic information about perpetrators, situations, without added details or notions.

li Whatever the reason, it is combined with all other abuses, and at the same time includes all

other abuses, as aggressions by nature sexual and the degree of coercion it requires, will also

be physical, emotionally, psychological mental violations all at the same time (Lalor, 2003).

It also consequently aims at keeping children as totally dependent in order to be kept in state

of slavery, the long term aims their abusers, by triggering and upholding traumas who harm

children and teenagers cognitively.

lii lii More research than intervention, or at least more papers on research (victims focused)

rather than papers on how institutions fight back, and punish, and on how to improve their

efficiency. Many researchers remind the fact that their studying a crime, in fact of the worst

kind, make the subject very secretive, at the image of the criminal society perpetrating them.

But what can only make matters worse is that in addition to enquiring into mafia-like or

‘private, familial horrors of incest’, is how academics research itself has been impaired by

secretiveness. They themselves work on statistics and case studies once one survivor out of

thousands have been sheltered. But what about the process and the dire necessity of

surveying police, social workers, and activists themselves into dismantling mafia networks?

Ultimately, what might push someone to research the subject is not the lack of research

themselves but the lack of measures taken against it

liii These amalgamations through data is one of the many seeded by words. It makes us

oblivious of the gravity of what sexual abuses are. The ‘killing’ of an individual, whose

traumas goes beyond repair, because of the abuses impact themselves but also as society not

through disempowerment this time but complicit actions often reacts with further

stigmatisation. Why these abuses could stay unhealable? Not because of their victims’

fragility but because society knowing remained passive, not actively enough stopping and


liv I searched the web, randomly and openly to have a vision of not only the academic debates

but also a more popular or journalistic approach. I have consistently searched academic

libraries. In addition, I browsed the net in order to address more specific questions and to

substantiate my thesis or suppositions, to bring about precise evidence or to deepen analysis,

possibilities and limitations. I found that the web was poor in information. This subject

brought often ‘no results’ in academic sites or results but within what will be view as

‘unqualified’, informal websites.